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Earth In The Beginning. Earth formed 4.6 billions of years ago. It was a fiery ball of molten rock Climate was hot ; there was not any water Early earth was lifeless. History of Life on Earth. Series of chemical events that produced the first living cell.

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Earth in the beginning
Earth In The Beginning

  • Earth formed 4.6 billions of years ago.

  • It was a fiery ball of molten rock

    • Climate was hot ; there was not any water

    • Early earth was lifeless

History of life on earth
History of Life on Earth

  • Series of chemical events that produced the first living cell.

    • Life first appeared 3.5 billion years ago.

Origin of life
Origin of Life

  • Unicellular (one celled) Prokaryotes (cells without a nucleus) were the first form of life to dominate earth

    • Bacteria

  • More complex multi-cellular (many celled) eukaryotic ( cells with nucleus and organelles) organisms evolved from bacteria

    • 1.5 billion years ago

Clues in the rocks
Clues in the Rocks

  • Evidence of early life have been in the discovery of fossils

    • Clues about how life evolved

The geologic time scale
The Geologic Time Scale

  • Shows the major geological and biological events in Earth’s history.

    • Divided into four major eras.

      • Cenozoic Era

      • Mesozoic Era

      • Paleozoic Era

      • Precambrian Era

The cambrian era the age of trilobites
The Cambrian Era"The Age of Trilobites"

  • Life exploded during this era.

  • Most organisms that exist today originated in this era.

  • Fish and invertebrates appeared n (organisms with shells)

  • There was no life on land


  • Life evolves on land

  • First land plants appear.

  • Amphibians are the dominant animal during this time.

Mesozoic era the age of the dinosaurs
Mesozoic EraThe Age of the Dinosaurs

  • Dinosaurs appear during this era.

  • Birds and mammals appear but aren’t prominent.

Cenozoic era
Cenozoic Era

  • Started 65 million years ago, continues to present.

  • Mammals become the dominant life form on land.

  • Humans appeared during this era

Mass extinction
Mass Extinction

  • Death of all members of many different species that is caused by a major ecological disaster.

  • Dinosaurs mass extinction

    • Caused by a large meteorite crashing to earth

    • Changed the climate, block the sun and caused the temperature to be very cold

Learning experience
Learning Experience

  • “The time is sixty-five million years ago. A huge meteorite has hit the Earth. Imagine that you are a dinosaur and you notice things seem different! Write a story from the point of view of your dinosaur. How do you feel? How is your environment changing?

  • Make an illustration to accompany your story.”

  • MC- 4 paragraphs

  • JR-3-4 paragraphs

  • LC-2-3 paragraphs

Learning experience life as a fossil
Learning ExperienceLife as a Fossil

  • MC /JR/LC-Imagine yourself as an ancient organism that has ended up in the fossil record.

  • Draw a picture of yourself as a fossil (you decide what your fossil would look like) and provide the following information: who were you (type of animal-create a new animal); what was your world like; what era did you live in (use textbook); how did you live; how did you die; who discovered you and what was your name.

  • This should be written in 2-3 paragraph (no color)

  • Drawing (use at least three colors)

Theory of evolution
Theory of Evolution

  • Evolution=Process by which living things change over time ( millions of years and not in one lifetime).

    • New species develop from older species as a result of gradual change

Theory of evolution accelerated
Theory of Evolution (Accelerated)

  • Four major points

    1.Variation(differences) exists within the genes of every population or species

    • That is why we all look so different

      2. Some species are better suited to survive (result of variation) and have more offspring

      3. Favorable traits spread (thick fur, long beaks)

      4. Species evolved from extinct organisms

  • Simply Put: CHANGE OVER TIME

  • Species

    • A group of organisms look alike and can reproduce among themselves.

    Scientist theory of evolution
    Scientist-Theory of Evolution

    • Charles Darwin- scientist that suggested a theory of evolution that is accepted by most scientist today.

      • The Origin of Species (Title of Book)

        • Main Idea: Species Changed over time by natural selection

    Lamarck s theory
    Lamarck’s Theory

    • 1st scientist to develop a theory of evolution

    • Proposed that traits were acquired (obtained) in a lifetime through use and disuse.

    • Example: Giraffes have long necks because they had to be able to reach the food in the trees.

    • Why is this theory false?

    • We can not obtain the traits that we need. Traits are inherited from parents and evolution does not take place in a lifetime.


    • Trait (s) that helps an organism to survive in its environment

      • Increases chances of survival

    Example of adaptation
    Example of Adaptation

    • Camouflage-Organisms ability to hide itself from predator and prey by blending in with its environment.

    Examples of adaptations
    Examples of Adaptations

    • Every animal has certain features that help it "fit in" with its surroundings.

    • Animals who can't adapt die! (Dinosaurs)

      • Being able to move very quickly

      • Having strong claws

      • Having sharp teeth

      • Having long, curved beaks

      • Having keen eyesight

      • Having the ability to trap prey

    Learning experience1
    Learning Experience

    • Design a magazine cover with a title related to evolution and natural selection.

    • 1. Give your magazine a title

    • 2. Decorate your magazine with pictures related to evolution.

    • 3.Come up with four titles of items that will be found in your magazine that is related to evolution.

    Natural selection
    Natural Selection

    • Survival of offspring that have favorable traits.

      • It is the force that drives evolution (like fuel in a car)

      • Evolution would not take place without the mechanisms of natural selection.

    What is the favorable trait in this picture?

    Natural selection1
    Natural Selection

    • Five main elements

      • 1. Variation (differences in traits among individuals of species) Ex. Different wing color, hair color, height, speed and strength.

    Natural selection2
    Natural Selection

    • 2. Struggle for Existence:

      • Offspring compete (try to get) for things that they need in order to survive.

        • Food and shelter

      • Some will survive and some will die.

    Natural selection3
    Natural Selection

    • 3. Overproduction:

      • Species produce more offspring that can survive because many will not survive.

    Natural selection4
    Natural Selection

    • 4. Survival of the Fittest:

      • Some Variations make organisms better suited for an environment. (Cold environment: fur)

      • These organisms are more likely to survive and reproduce.

    Natural selection5
    Natural Selection

    • 5. Evolution of New Species:

      • Favorable Traits are passed onto their offspring.

      • Unfavorable traits disappear which can lead to the appearance of a new species.

    Natural selection6
    Natural Selection

    • SIMPLY PUT: Survival of the fittest (best suited to the environment)

    Natural selection output
    Natural Selection Output

    • Divide your paper into five.

    • Draw a picture for each of the main elements of natural selection.

    • Answer Question: Why is natural selection important?

    Evidence of evolution
    Evidence of Evolution

    • Fossil Record provides evidence of changes that have taken place throughout Earth’s history.

      • Clues that support the theory of evolution

    Evidence of evolution1
    Evidence of Evolution

    • Fossil: are the remains or traces of ancient life; can be mineralized bones, teeth, shells, wood, or actual unaltered material from an organism.

      • Provide evidence of how a species has changed over time.

      • Ex. Horse

    Evidence of evolution2
    Evidence of Evolution

    • Homologous Structures: structures that are similar in structure but not function.

      • Provide clues that organisms evolved from the same ancestor.

    Evidence of evolution3
    Evidence of Evolution

    • Vestigial Structures: body structures that seem to have no function.

      • At one time did have function but has diminished (become less) over time due to evolution.

      • Ex. Wisdom Teeth

    Evidence of evolution4
    Evidence of Evolution

    • DNA Evidence: DNA (the genetic map of an individual) provides evidence of common ancestry.

      • Dog and bears are closely related because they have very similar DNA

    Evidence of evolution5
    Evidence of Evolution

    • Simply Put: The evidence of evolution provides proof that evolution actually takes place.

    Evidence of evolution6
    Evidence of Evolution

    • 1. Write a two paragraphs letter to student who is absent explaining the notes. This should be in your own words.

    • Include a drawing that will help to further explain what we talked about in class today.


    • Grouping things according to similarities, or how they are alike.


    • Science of naming and classifying organisms.

      • Classification is a way of organizing information about different kinds of living things.

      • Makes it easier for scientist to identify newly discovered organisms.

    Classification of living things
    Classification of Living Things

    • Classified based on shared Characteristics

      • Appearance (how they look)

      • Structure (how they obtain energy or type of cells)

    Early classification systems
    Early Classification Systems

    • CarolusLinnaeus developed a new way to classify organisms.

      • Classified according to their physical characteristics.

      • Father of Taxonomy

    Classification levels
    Classification Levels

    • Seven major classification levels

      • Number of different kinds of organisms decrease as you move from the kingdom level to each of the next smaller levels.

      • From Largest to Smallest

      • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species

    Comparing the levels
    Comparing the Levels

    • Kingdom-largest classification group

      • Organisms have similar cell structure and functions.

      • Example: Animalia (multicellular (many celled) and get energy from food.

    • Species-smallest classification group

      • Organisms have similar characteristics and can reproduce

      • Ex. Dogs

    Comparing the levels1
    Comparing the Levels

    • Genus-made up of two or more species that are very much alike.

      • Ex. Dogs and Wolves

    Naming organisms
    Naming Organisms

    • Written in Latin (universal language)

      • Gives Scientist a common way of communicating

    • Scientific Name

      • Genus + Species

      • First letter of Genus is capitalized and first letter of species is lower case

      • Ex. Homosapiens

      • Two different organisms can not have the same scientific name

      • Organisms can have the same Genus name but will always have a different species name

      • Ex. Red Oak= Quercusrubra

        Willow Oak= Quercusphellos


    • Simply Put: Classification helps scientist to bring order to the living world.

    Left side out put assignment
    Left Side Out Put Assignment

    • Create a new organisms using the instruction on the paper.

    • A. Come up with three-five general characteristic of your new animal.

    • B. Draw your new organisms in its habitat

    • C. Write a poem about your new organisms.

    • Explain why it is necessary to classify things?

    Six kingdoms of life
    Six Kingdoms of Life

    • The grouping of organisms into kingdoms is based on 3 factors:

      • Cell Type

      • Cell Number

      • Feeding Type

    Cell type
    Cell Type

    • The presence or absence of cellular structures such as the nucleus, mitochondria or a cell wall

      Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes



      • a membrane bound nucleus (control center of the cell)

      • Any membrane bound organelles(small structures that do a specific job.


    • DO HAVE

      • Separate membrane bound nucleus

      • Other organelles

    Cell number
    Cell Number

    • Whether the organism exist as single cells or as many cells.

    • Unicellular: single celled organisms (Bacteria)

    • Multicellular-many celled organism (Tiger)

    Feeding type
    Feeding Type

    • How the organisms gets their food.

    • Autotroph(producer)

      • Makes its own food

    • Heterotroph(consumer)

      • Must eat other organisms to survive

    6 kingdoms
    6 Kingdoms

    • Archaebacteria

    • Eubacteria

    • Protista

    • Fungi

    • Plantae

    • Animalia




    • Ancient Bacteria

      • Live in very harsh environment (extremophiles)


    • Live in more neutral conditions


    • Odds and Ends Kingdom (organisms that do not fit into the other five kingdoms)

    • Some are beneficial

    • Some can cause diseases

    • Ex. Paramecium


    • Includes some of the most important organisms

    • “Nature Recyclers”-recycle dead and organic material and return nutrients back to the environment.

    • Example: Mushroom


    Cells contain (chloroplast: organelle that is responsible for trapping energy from sun and converting into to food for the plants)

    Provide food for humans and other animals

    Source of medicine, dyes, cloth, paper and many products



    • Organisms are capable of movement

    • Divided into two major groups:

      • Invertebrates: animals with a hard outside covering known as exoskeleton

      • Vertebrates: organisms with a hard internal skeleton made of bone


    • Structural functional units of life

      • Like building blocks

    • Unicellular (single celled)-bacteria

    • Multicellular (many cells)-Humans

    What instrument allowed scientist to view cells
    What instrument allowed scientist to view cells?

    • Microscope

      • large image of a small object

    • 2 Types of microscope

      • Light

      • Electron

    • Instructions

    Cell theory
    Cell Theory

    • 1.All organisms are composed of one or more cells

    • 2. All cells come from preexisting cells with cells passing copies of their genetic material on to their daughter cells (offspring).

    • 3. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.

    Two types of cells
    Two types of Cells

    • Prokaryotic (singletons)

      • Lack: organelles, nucleus

      • Have: cell wall, DNA, plasma membrane, ribosome's, and cytoplasm

    • Eukaryotic (multi-cellular organisms)

      • Have: organelles and nucleus

      • 2 groups: Plant and Animal

    Learning experience2
    Learning Experience

    • P. 6L-21L draw a picture for each of the cell theories that describes the major concepts.

      • You should have a total of four pictures (number pictures with the number of the cell theory

      • Please do not write the theories on this page.

      • Remember assignment are done using color

    General learning experience
    General Learning Experience

    • 23L-Venn Diagram: Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

    Organelles and their function
    Organelles and their Function

    • Organelles work together like a team

      • “little organs”- each performing a vital function

    Organelles and their function1
    Organelles and their Function

    • Cell membrane-cell’s defining boundary

      • Double layer of lipids (fats) and hydrophilic (water loving) molecules

      • Fluid like bubbles

      • Controls what moves into and out of the cell (semi-permeable)

      • Helps to maintain a stable internal environment inside of the cell (homeostasis)

    Organelles and their function2
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Cell Wall

      • Protects cell against injury and invasion of harmful material

      • Rigid (hard)

      • Only found in Plant cells

    Organelles and their function3
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Cytoplasm-salty gelatin like substance that holds the organelles in place

    Organelles and their function4
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Cytoskeleton-organize and maintain cell’s shape

      • Anchors organelles in place

    Organelles and their function5
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Nucleus (control center)

      • Houses DNA (hereditary information)

      • Surrounded by nuclear membrane (envelope)-protects DNA

      • Site of DNA replication (making more DNA) and RNA synthesis (making more protein)

    Organelles and their function6
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Nuclear envelope

      • Separate the nucleus from outside environment

      • Controls what moves in and out of the nucleus

    Organelles and their function7
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Lysosome

      • contain digestive enzyme

      • Digest (breakdown) waste and food within cell

      • Recycle old and worn out cell parts

      • Only found in Animal cells

    Organelles and their function8
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Golgi Complex

      • Packaging plant of proteins that are assembled in the ER.

    Organelles and their function9
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Mitochondria

      • Contain their own DNA

      • Energy production

    Organelles and their function10
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Endoplasmic Reticulum-transport system of the cell( like the UPS)

      • Two types smooth and rough

    • Rough ER

      • Ribosome’s on surface

      • Site of protein synthesis

    • Smooth ER

      • Lacks ribosome’s

    Organelles and their function11
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Vacuole

      • Store food, water and waste

      • Only found in Plant cells

    Organelles and their function12
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Chloroplast

      • Contain light sensitive pigments (chlorophyll)

      • Site of photosynthesis (process of making food)

      • Found in Plant cells

    Organelles and their function13
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Centriole

      • Participate in cell division

      • Found in Animal cells

    Organelles and their function14
    Organelles and Their Function

    • Ribosome’s

      • Factory that builds proteins

    How are animal cells and plants cells different similar
    How are animal cells and plants cells different? Similar?

    • How are plant cells different from animal cells?

      • Plant cells: cell wall, chloroplast, and vacuole

      • Animal cell: lysosome and centriole

    • Similar: nucleus, mitochondria, ribosome's, golgi complex, rough and smooth ER, cytoplasm, plasma membrane

    Learning experience3
    Learning Experience

    • Interview with an Organelle

    • 1.      Create a full-page (8 ½ X 11) written article with drawing) about life in the day of the organelle. ( 2 paragraphs)

    • 2.      Article must include:

      • ·        Community role (function or job of organelle)

      • ·        Job (processes carried out in the cell)

      • ·        Describe the neighborhood found in (type of cell and how it interacts with other cell organelles)

      • ·        Direct quotes from organelle

    Learning experience4
    Learning Experience

    • --Advertise a cell part. Imagine that you are trying to sell your organelle to the plant or animal cell.

      • A. pick an organelle (nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, and chloroplast)

        • Come up with a Catchy Phrase (Remember you are trying to get the plant or animal cell to purchase your cell part)

        • Describe your function

        • How much you will cost

        • Draw a creative picture of yourself that reflects the personality of the organelle


    • Chloroplast

      • What type of cell?

      • Catchy Phrase

    What are the different processes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    What are the different processes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

    • All cells have:

      • Cell membrane that regulate the chaos outside of the cell

        • Regulate the flow of what goes in and out of the cell

      • Reproduce

      • Require a constant supply of energy

      • Composed of the same BASIC CHEMICALS: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, fats and vitamins.

    Viruses characteristics of life
    Viruses-Characteristics of Life eukaryotes?

    • 7 characteristics of life

      • 1. Composed of Cells

      • Must exhibit all 7 in order to be considered to be living.

    7 characteristics of life
    7 Characteristics of Life eukaryotes?

    • 2. Different levels of organization(tissues, organs, organ system)

    7 characteristics of life1
    7 Characteristics Of Life eukaryotes?

    • 3. Use Energy

    7 characteristics of life2
    7 Characteristics Of Life eukaryotes?

    • 4. Respond to their environment

    7 characteristics of life3
    7 Characteristics Of Life eukaryotes?

    • 5. Growth

    7 characteristics of life4
    7 Characteristics Of Life eukaryotes?

    • 6. Reproduce

    7 characteristics of life5
    7 Characteristics Of Life eukaryotes?

    • 7. Adapt to their environment

    Viruses eukaryotes?

    • Virus

      • Are not living things

        • Do exhibit all properties of life

          • Do not reproduce outside of the host cell

          • They are not cells

          • Do not adapt nor do they use energy

      • Cause diseases

      • Major impact on the living world

    Shape eukaryotes?

    • Shape is determined by its parts

      • Capsid-protein coat that contains either RNA or DNA

    • Envelope-surrounds the capsid

      • Helps the virus enter cells

    Viruses eukaryotes?

    • Cause many diseases

    • Ex. Chicken pox, Mumps, Cold, Hepatitis A and B

    • Emerging viruses-viruses that evolved geographically in isolated areas and are pathogenic to humans

      • Ex. Hantavirus

    Chicken pox eukaryotes?

    Influenza eukaryotes?

    Influenza eukaryotes?

    Rubella eukaryotes?

    Mumps eukaryotes?

    Smallpox eukaryotes?

    Hepatitis a and b
    Hepatitis A and B eukaryotes?

    Polio eukaryotes?

    Rabies eukaryotes?

    Biosphere eukaryotes?

    • The biosphere is the part of the Earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs

    • Living world

    • extends to the upper areas of the atmosphere where birds and insects can be found.

    • It also reaches to the bottom of the ocean.

    Ecosystem eukaryotes?

    • Consist of all plants, animals and microorganisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment.

    • Includes the following:

      • Community: small area within the ecosystem where certain types of plants and animals live. (neighborhood)

      • Population: individual species in a community ( people, plant, animals in your neighborhood)

      • Species: group of similar organisms that can breed with one another to produce fertile offspring (ex. Cats or dogs)

    Forest community
    Forest Community eukaryotes?

    Deer population
    Deer Population eukaryotes?