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Earth In The Beginning. Earth formed 4.6 billions of years ago. It was a fiery ball of molten rock Climate was hot ; there was not any water Early earth was lifeless. History of Life on Earth. Series of chemical events that produced the first living cell.

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earth in the beginning
Earth In The Beginning
  • Earth formed 4.6 billions of years ago.
  • It was a fiery ball of molten rock
    • Climate was hot ; there was not any water
    • Early earth was lifeless
history of life on earth
History of Life on Earth
  • Series of chemical events that produced the first living cell.
    • Life first appeared 3.5 billion years ago.
origin of life
Origin of Life
  • Unicellular (one celled) Prokaryotes (cells without a nucleus) were the first form of life to dominate earth
    • Bacteria
  • More complex multi-cellular (many celled) eukaryotic ( cells with nucleus and organelles) organisms evolved from bacteria
    • 1.5 billion years ago
clues in the rocks
Clues in the Rocks
  • Evidence of early life have been in the discovery of fossils
    • Clues about how life evolved
the geologic time scale
The Geologic Time Scale
  • Shows the major geological and biological events in Earth’s history.
    • Divided into four major eras.
      • Cenozoic Era
      • Mesozoic Era
      • Paleozoic Era
      • Precambrian Era
the cambrian era the age of trilobites
The Cambrian Era"The Age of Trilobites"
  • Life exploded during this era.
  • Most organisms that exist today originated in this era.
  • Fish and invertebrates appeared n (organisms with shells)
  • There was no life on land
paleozoic
Paleozoic
  • Life evolves on land
  • First land plants appear.
  • Amphibians are the dominant animal during this time.
mesozoic era the age of the dinosaurs
Mesozoic EraThe Age of the Dinosaurs
  • Dinosaurs appear during this era.
  • Birds and mammals appear but aren’t prominent.
cenozoic era
Cenozoic Era
  • Started 65 million years ago, continues to present.
  • Mammals become the dominant life form on land.
  • Humans appeared during this era
mass extinction
Mass Extinction
  • Death of all members of many different species that is caused by a major ecological disaster.
  • Dinosaurs mass extinction
    • Caused by a large meteorite crashing to earth
    • Changed the climate, block the sun and caused the temperature to be very cold
learning experience
Learning Experience
  • “The time is sixty-five million years ago. A huge meteorite has hit the Earth. Imagine that you are a dinosaur and you notice things seem different! Write a story from the point of view of your dinosaur. How do you feel? How is your environment changing?
  • Make an illustration to accompany your story.”
  • MC- 4 paragraphs
  • JR-3-4 paragraphs
  • LC-2-3 paragraphs
learning experience life as a fossil
Learning ExperienceLife as a Fossil
  • MC /JR/LC-Imagine yourself as an ancient organism that has ended up in the fossil record.
  • Draw a picture of yourself as a fossil (you decide what your fossil would look like) and provide the following information: who were you (type of animal-create a new animal); what was your world like; what era did you live in (use textbook); how did you live; how did you die; who discovered you and what was your name.
  • This should be written in 2-3 paragraph (no color)
  • Drawing (use at least three colors)
theory of evolution
Theory of Evolution
  • Evolution=Process by which living things change over time ( millions of years and not in one lifetime).
    • New species develop from older species as a result of gradual change
theory of evolution accelerated
Theory of Evolution (Accelerated)
  • Four major points

1.Variation(differences) exists within the genes of every population or species

      • That is why we all look so different

2. Some species are better suited to survive (result of variation) and have more offspring

3. Favorable traits spread (thick fur, long beaks)

4. Species evolved from extinct organisms

  • Simply Put: CHANGE OVER TIME
species
Species
  • A group of organisms look alike and can reproduce among themselves.
scientist theory of evolution
Scientist-Theory of Evolution
  • Charles Darwin- scientist that suggested a theory of evolution that is accepted by most scientist today.
    • The Origin of Species (Title of Book)
      • Main Idea: Species Changed over time by natural selection
lamarck s theory
Lamarck’s Theory
  • 1st scientist to develop a theory of evolution
  • Proposed that traits were acquired (obtained) in a lifetime through use and disuse.
  • Example: Giraffes have long necks because they had to be able to reach the food in the trees.
  • Why is this theory false?
  • We can not obtain the traits that we need. Traits are inherited from parents and evolution does not take place in a lifetime.
adaptation
Adaptation
  • Trait (s) that helps an organism to survive in its environment
    • Increases chances of survival
example of adaptation
Example of Adaptation
  • Camouflage-Organisms ability to hide itself from predator and prey by blending in with its environment.
examples of adaptations
Examples of Adaptations
  • Every animal has certain features that help it "fit in" with its surroundings.
  • Animals who can\'t adapt die! (Dinosaurs)
    • Being able to move very quickly
    • Having strong claws
    • Having sharp teeth
    • Having long, curved beaks
    • Having keen eyesight
    • Having the ability to trap prey
learning experience1
Learning Experience
  • Design a magazine cover with a title related to evolution and natural selection.
  • 1. Give your magazine a title
  • 2. Decorate your magazine with pictures related to evolution.
  • 3.Come up with four titles of items that will be found in your magazine that is related to evolution.
natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Survival of offspring that have favorable traits.
    • It is the force that drives evolution (like fuel in a car)
    • Evolution would not take place without the mechanisms of natural selection.

What is the favorable trait in this picture?

natural selection1
Natural Selection
  • Five main elements
    • 1. Variation (differences in traits among individuals of species) Ex. Different wing color, hair color, height, speed and strength.
natural selection2
Natural Selection
  • 2. Struggle for Existence:
    • Offspring compete (try to get) for things that they need in order to survive.
      • Food and shelter
    • Some will survive and some will die.
natural selection3
Natural Selection
  • 3. Overproduction:
    • Species produce more offspring that can survive because many will not survive.
natural selection4
Natural Selection
  • 4. Survival of the Fittest:
    • Some Variations make organisms better suited for an environment. (Cold environment: fur)
    • These organisms are more likely to survive and reproduce.
natural selection5
Natural Selection
  • 5. Evolution of New Species:
    • Favorable Traits are passed onto their offspring.
    • Unfavorable traits disappear which can lead to the appearance of a new species.
natural selection6
Natural Selection
  • SIMPLY PUT: Survival of the fittest (best suited to the environment)
natural selection output
Natural Selection Output
  • Divide your paper into five.
  • Draw a picture for each of the main elements of natural selection.
  • Answer Question: Why is natural selection important?
evidence of evolution
Evidence of Evolution
  • Fossil Record provides evidence of changes that have taken place throughout Earth’s history.
    • Clues that support the theory of evolution
evidence of evolution1
Evidence of Evolution
  • Fossil: are the remains or traces of ancient life; can be mineralized bones, teeth, shells, wood, or actual unaltered material from an organism.
    • Provide evidence of how a species has changed over time.
    • Ex. Horse
evidence of evolution2
Evidence of Evolution
  • Homologous Structures: structures that are similar in structure but not function.
    • Provide clues that organisms evolved from the same ancestor.
evidence of evolution3
Evidence of Evolution
  • Vestigial Structures: body structures that seem to have no function.
    • At one time did have function but has diminished (become less) over time due to evolution.
    • Ex. Wisdom Teeth
evidence of evolution4
Evidence of Evolution
  • DNA Evidence: DNA (the genetic map of an individual) provides evidence of common ancestry.
    • Dog and bears are closely related because they have very similar DNA
evidence of evolution5
Evidence of Evolution
  • Simply Put: The evidence of evolution provides proof that evolution actually takes place.
evidence of evolution6
Evidence of Evolution
  • 1. Write a two paragraphs letter to student who is absent explaining the notes. This should be in your own words.
  • Include a drawing that will help to further explain what we talked about in class today.
classification
Classification
  • Grouping things according to similarities, or how they are alike.
taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Science of naming and classifying organisms.
    • Classification is a way of organizing information about different kinds of living things.
    • Makes it easier for scientist to identify newly discovered organisms.
classification of living things
Classification of Living Things
  • Classified based on shared Characteristics
    • Appearance (how they look)
    • Structure (how they obtain energy or type of cells)
early classification systems
Early Classification Systems
  • CarolusLinnaeus developed a new way to classify organisms.
    • Classified according to their physical characteristics.
    • Father of Taxonomy
classification levels
Classification Levels
  • Seven major classification levels
    • Number of different kinds of organisms decrease as you move from the kingdom level to each of the next smaller levels.
    • From Largest to Smallest
    • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species
comparing the levels
Comparing the Levels
  • Kingdom-largest classification group
    • Organisms have similar cell structure and functions.
    • Example: Animalia (multicellular (many celled) and get energy from food.
  • Species-smallest classification group
    • Organisms have similar characteristics and can reproduce
    • Ex. Dogs
comparing the levels1
Comparing the Levels
  • Genus-made up of two or more species that are very much alike.
    • Ex. Dogs and Wolves
naming organisms
Naming Organisms
  • Written in Latin (universal language)
    • Gives Scientist a common way of communicating
  • Scientific Name
    • Genus + Species
    • First letter of Genus is capitalized and first letter of species is lower case
    • Ex. Homosapiens
    • Two different organisms can not have the same scientific name
    • Organisms can have the same Genus name but will always have a different species name
    • Ex. Red Oak= Quercusrubra

Willow Oak= Quercusphellos

classification1
Classification
  • Simply Put: Classification helps scientist to bring order to the living world.
left side out put assignment
Left Side Out Put Assignment
  • Create a new organisms using the instruction on the paper.
  • A. Come up with three-five general characteristic of your new animal.
  • B. Draw your new organisms in its habitat
  • C. Write a poem about your new organisms.
  • Explain why it is necessary to classify things?
six kingdoms of life
Six Kingdoms of Life
  • The grouping of organisms into kingdoms is based on 3 factors:
    • Cell Type
    • Cell Number
    • Feeding Type
cell type
Cell Type
  • The presence or absence of cellular structures such as the nucleus, mitochondria or a cell wall

Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

prokaryotes
Prokaryotes
  • DO NOT HAVE
    • a membrane bound nucleus (control center of the cell)
    • Any membrane bound organelles(small structures that do a specific job.
eukaryotes
Eukaryotes
  • DO HAVE
    • Separate membrane bound nucleus
    • Other organelles
cell number
Cell Number
  • Whether the organism exist as single cells or as many cells.
  • Unicellular: single celled organisms (Bacteria)
  • Multicellular-many celled organism (Tiger)
feeding type
Feeding Type
  • How the organisms gets their food.
  • Autotroph(producer)
    • Makes its own food
  • Heterotroph(consumer)
    • Must eat other organisms to survive
6 kingdoms
6 Kingdoms
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

archaebacteria
Archaebacteria
  • Ancient Bacteria
    • Live in very harsh environment (extremophiles)
eubacteria
Eubacteria
  • Live in more neutral conditions
protist
Protist
  • Odds and Ends Kingdom (organisms that do not fit into the other five kingdoms)
  • Some are beneficial
  • Some can cause diseases
  • Ex. Paramecium
fungi
Fungi
  • Includes some of the most important organisms
  • “Nature Recyclers”-recycle dead and organic material and return nutrients back to the environment.
  • Example: Mushroom
plantae
Cells contain (chloroplast: organelle that is responsible for trapping energy from sun and converting into to food for the plants)

Provide food for humans and other animals

Source of medicine, dyes, cloth, paper and many products

Plantae
animal
Animal
  • Organisms are capable of movement
  • Divided into two major groups:
    • Invertebrates: animals with a hard outside covering known as exoskeleton
    • Vertebrates: organisms with a hard internal skeleton made of bone
cells
Cells
  • Structural functional units of life
    • Like building blocks
  • Unicellular (single celled)-bacteria
  • Multicellular (many cells)-Humans
what instrument allowed scientist to view cells
What instrument allowed scientist to view cells?
  • Microscope
    • large image of a small object
  • 2 Types of microscope
    • Light
    • Electron
  • Instructions
cell theory
Cell Theory
  • 1.All organisms are composed of one or more cells
  • 2. All cells come from preexisting cells with cells passing copies of their genetic material on to their daughter cells (offspring).
  • 3. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.
two types of cells
Two types of Cells
  • Prokaryotic (singletons)
    • Lack: organelles, nucleus
    • Have: cell wall, DNA, plasma membrane, ribosome\'s, and cytoplasm
  • Eukaryotic (multi-cellular organisms)
    • Have: organelles and nucleus
    • 2 groups: Plant and Animal
learning experience2
Learning Experience
  • P. 6L-21L draw a picture for each of the cell theories that describes the major concepts.
    • You should have a total of four pictures (number pictures with the number of the cell theory
    • Please do not write the theories on this page.
    • Remember assignment are done using color
general learning experience
General Learning Experience
  • 23L-Venn Diagram: Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
organelles and their function
Organelles and their Function
  • Organelles work together like a team
    • “little organs”- each performing a vital function
organelles and their function1
Organelles and their Function
  • Cell membrane-cell’s defining boundary
    • Double layer of lipids (fats) and hydrophilic (water loving) molecules
    • Fluid like bubbles
    • Controls what moves into and out of the cell (semi-permeable)
    • Helps to maintain a stable internal environment inside of the cell (homeostasis)
organelles and their function2
Organelles and Their Function
  • Cell Wall
    • Protects cell against injury and invasion of harmful material
    • Rigid (hard)
    • Only found in Plant cells
organelles and their function3
Organelles and Their Function
  • Cytoplasm-salty gelatin like substance that holds the organelles in place
organelles and their function4
Organelles and Their Function
  • Cytoskeleton-organize and maintain cell’s shape
    • Anchors organelles in place
organelles and their function5
Organelles and Their Function
  • Nucleus (control center)
    • Houses DNA (hereditary information)
    • Surrounded by nuclear membrane (envelope)-protects DNA
    • Site of DNA replication (making more DNA) and RNA synthesis (making more protein)
organelles and their function6
Organelles and Their Function
  • Nuclear envelope
    • Separate the nucleus from outside environment
    • Controls what moves in and out of the nucleus
organelles and their function7
Organelles and Their Function
  • Lysosome
    • contain digestive enzyme
    • Digest (breakdown) waste and food within cell
    • Recycle old and worn out cell parts
    • Only found in Animal cells
organelles and their function8
Organelles and Their Function
  • Golgi Complex
    • Packaging plant of proteins that are assembled in the ER.
organelles and their function9
Organelles and Their Function
  • Mitochondria
    • Contain their own DNA
    • Energy production
organelles and their function10
Organelles and Their Function
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum-transport system of the cell( like the UPS)
    • Two types smooth and rough
  • Rough ER
    • Ribosome’s on surface
    • Site of protein synthesis
  • Smooth ER
    • Lacks ribosome’s
organelles and their function11
Organelles and Their Function
  • Vacuole
    • Store food, water and waste
    • Only found in Plant cells
organelles and their function12
Organelles and Their Function
  • Chloroplast
    • Contain light sensitive pigments (chlorophyll)
    • Site of photosynthesis (process of making food)
    • Found in Plant cells
organelles and their function13
Organelles and Their Function
  • Centriole
    • Participate in cell division
    • Found in Animal cells
organelles and their function14
Organelles and Their Function
  • Ribosome’s
    • Factory that builds proteins
how are animal cells and plants cells different similar
How are animal cells and plants cells different? Similar?
  • How are plant cells different from animal cells?
    • Plant cells: cell wall, chloroplast, and vacuole
    • Animal cell: lysosome and centriole
  • Similar: nucleus, mitochondria, ribosome\'s, golgi complex, rough and smooth ER, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
learning experience3
Learning Experience
  • Interview with an Organelle
  • 1.      Create a full-page (8 ½ X 11) written article with drawing) about life in the day of the organelle. ( 2 paragraphs)
  • 2.      Article must include:
    • ·        Community role (function or job of organelle)
    • ·        Job (processes carried out in the cell)
    • ·        Describe the neighborhood found in (type of cell and how it interacts with other cell organelles)
    • ·        Direct quotes from organelle
learning experience4
Learning Experience
  • --Advertise a cell part. Imagine that you are trying to sell your organelle to the plant or animal cell.
    • A. pick an organelle (nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, and chloroplast)
      • Come up with a Catchy Phrase (Remember you are trying to get the plant or animal cell to purchase your cell part)
      • Describe your function
      • How much you will cost
      • Draw a creative picture of yourself that reflects the personality of the organelle
example
Example
  • Chloroplast
    • What type of cell?
    • Catchy Phrase
what are the different processes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What are the different processes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
  • All cells have:
    • Cell membrane that regulate the chaos outside of the cell
      • Regulate the flow of what goes in and out of the cell
    • Reproduce
    • Require a constant supply of energy
    • Composed of the same BASIC CHEMICALS: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, fats and vitamins.
viruses characteristics of life
Viruses-Characteristics of Life
  • 7 characteristics of life
    • 1. Composed of Cells
    • Must exhibit all 7 in order to be considered to be living.
7 characteristics of life
7 Characteristics of Life
  • 2. Different levels of organization(tissues, organs, organ system)
7 characteristics of life2
7 Characteristics Of Life
  • 4. Respond to their environment
7 characteristics of life5
7 Characteristics Of Life
  • 7. Adapt to their environment
viruses
Viruses
  • Virus
    • Are not living things
      • Do exhibit all properties of life
        • Do not reproduce outside of the host cell
        • They are not cells
        • Do not adapt nor do they use energy
    • Cause diseases
    • Major impact on the living world
shape
Shape
  • Shape is determined by its parts
    • Capsid-protein coat that contains either RNA or DNA
  • Envelope-surrounds the capsid
    • Helps the virus enter cells
viruses1
Viruses
  • Cause many diseases
  • Ex. Chicken pox, Mumps, Cold, Hepatitis A and B
  • Emerging viruses-viruses that evolved geographically in isolated areas and are pathogenic to humans
    • Ex. Hantavirus
biosphere
Biosphere
  • The biosphere is the part of the Earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs
  • Living world
  • extends to the upper areas of the atmosphere where birds and insects can be found.
  • It also reaches to the bottom of the ocean.
ecosystem
Ecosystem
  • Consist of all plants, animals and microorganisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment.
  • Includes the following:
    • Community: small area within the ecosystem where certain types of plants and animals live. (neighborhood)
    • Population: individual species in a community ( people, plant, animals in your neighborhood)
    • Species: group of similar organisms that can breed with one another to produce fertile offspring (ex. Cats or dogs)
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