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Modern Chemistry Chapter 15 Acid-Base Titration & pH

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Modern Chemistry Chapter 15 Acid-Base Titration & pH. Section 1. self-ionization of water occurs when two water molecules produce a hydronium (H 3 O + ) and a hydroxide (OH - ) ion 2 H 2 O  H 3 O + + OH -

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section 1
Section 1
  • self-ionization of water occurs when two water molecules produce a hydronium (H3O+) and a hydroxide (OH-) ion

2 H2O  H3O+ + OH-

  • The ionization constant (Kw) of water is: Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 M
acidic basic neutral
Acidic, Basic, & Neutral
  • IF [H3O+] > [OH-] then solution is acidic.
  • IF [H3O+] < [OH-] then solution is basic.
  • IF [H3O+] = [OH-] then solution is neutral.
calculating h 3 o oh
Calculating [H3O+] & [OH-]
  • Since the product of the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations is a constant, we can use the following formula to determine these concentrations.

[H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 M

Use this formula to answer problems #1-4 on page 502 of the textbook.

the ph scale
The pH Scale
  • The pH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, [H3O+].

pH = -log [H3O+]

  • The pOH of a solution is defined as the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-].

pOH = -log [OH-]

ph poh
pH & pOH

pH + pOH = 14 so

14 – pH = pOH and

14 – pOH = pH

See figure 3 on page on page 503.

See table 3 on page 504.

See table 4 on page 504.

Do problem #1 on page 505.

Do problems #1-4 on page 506.

Do problems #1-4 on page 508.

cross disciplinary connection
Cross-Disciplinary Connection
  • Read the Cross-Disciplinary Connection titled “Liming Streams” on page 510.
  • Answer both questions at the end of the article.
section 2 determining ph and titrations
Section 2Determining pH and Titrations
  • acid-base indicators are compounds whose colors are sensitive to pH
  • transition interval is the pH range over which an indicator changes color
  • a pH meter determines the pH of a solution by measuring the voltage between two electrodes placed in a solution.
titration
Titration
  • titration is the controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution of a known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of solution of an unknown concentration
  • equivalence point is the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts
  • endpoint is the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color
  • standard solution is the solution that contains a precisely known concentration of solute
titration1
Titration
  • see figure 10 on pages 518-519 for the steps of a titration
  • A general equation for the solution of titration problems would be

VaMaeqa = VbMbeqb

Va = volume of acid Vb = volume of base

Ma = molarity of acid Mb = molarity of base

eqa = #H in formula of acid eqb = #OH in formula of base

titration2
Titration
  • Do practice problems #1-2 on page 521.
  • Do section review problems #1-2 on page 521.
  • Do chapter review problems #6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 24, 25, & 26 on pages 523-524.
modern chemistry chapter 15 test review
Modern Chemistry Chapter 15Test Review
  • 25 multiple choice
    • definition of self-ionization
    • [H3O+] [OH-] = 1 x 10-14
    • definition and formula for calculating pH = -log[H3O+]
    • pH >7 is a base; pH <7 is an acid; pH = 7 is neutral
    • pH range is normally 0 to 14
    • calculate pH from [H3O+]
    • calculate [H3O+] from pH
    • definitions of indicators, transition interval, titration, neutralization, endpoint, standard solution
    • acid-base titration monitors pH
    • titration problems using VaMaeqa = VbMbeqb
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