How important are dioxin emissions from the open burning of waste
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HOW IMPORTANT ARE DIOXIN EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF WASTE?. How do we get exposed to dioxins? How does waste burning contribute to exposure?. Soil ingestion. Vegetable fat. Soil dermal contact. Other meats. Poultry. Freshwater fish and. shellfish. 6%. Pork. 5%. 19%.

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How important are dioxin emissions from the open burning of waste
HOW IMPORTANT ARE DIOXIN EMISSIONS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF WASTE?

  • How do we get exposed to dioxins?

  • How does waste burning contribute to exposure?


Us adult average daily intake of cdds cdfs dioxin like pcbs

Soil ingestion WASTE?

Vegetable fat

Soil dermal contact

Other meats

Poultry

Freshwaterfish and

shellfish

6%

Pork

5%

19%

Marine fish and shellfish

Beef

7%

14%

1%

Inhalation

4%

16%

Eggs

21%

Milk

Dairy

US Adult Average Daily Intake of CDDs/CDFs/dioxin-like PCBs

2000 Draft Estimate: ~ 65 pg TEQDFP-WHO98/day


Sources and pathways to human exposures
Sources and Pathways to Human Exposures WASTE?

SOURCES

DEPOSITION

FOOD

SUPPLY

TRANSPORT

Reentrainment

Runoff

Erosion


Dioxin exposure and food distribution
Dioxin Exposure and Food Distribution WASTE?

  • In the US, exposure to most individuals is not strongly influenced by their local sources of dioxin.

    • Food is the primary route of exposure

    • Meat and diary production is concentrated in a few geographic areas

    • This production is nationally distributed, driven primarily by market forces

    • Consequently, most US consumers eat from a common meat and dairy supply that is produced a significant distant from where they live

  • In many other countries meat and dairy production is more localized and local sources may dominate exposure.


How much dioxin in the environment comes from open burning
How much dioxin in the environment comes from open burning WASTE?

  • Historical levels

  • Current levels in the US


20 th century trend
20 WASTE?th Century Trend


Decline in US Dioxin Releases 1987-1995-2004* WASTE?

1987

1995

2004

* 2004 projections are

preliminary and not part

of the reassessment



OPEN BURNING TEST FACILITY Barrels in rural areas


Open burn test facility
Open Burn Test Facility Barrels in rural areas


Backyard burning of household waste
Backyard Burning of Household Waste Barrels in rural areas

Waste Composition


Results teq values
Results: TEQ Values Barrels in rural areas

10000

1000

I-TEQ (ng/kg waste burned)

100

10

1

Open

CaCl2

CaCl2

Wetted

Wetted

Double

Double

Double

High Cu

High Cu

PVC=1%

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

Baseline

PVC=0%

PVC=0%

PVC=1%

PVC=7.5%

PVC=7.5%

Compressed

Compressed


Statistical analysis results
Statistical Analysis Results Barrels in rural areas

  • Waste Chlorine Effect Statistically Significant Only at High Cl Levels

  • At Normal Cl Levels (< 1 % Cl), Other Parameters Dominate

  • Gas-Phase Conditions Important (HCl, T, Cu, burning rate)

  • Majority of PCDD/F Emissions During Smoldering Phase of Burn


Activity Barrels in rural areasLevel

  • -In 1992, 51.8 Million People Lived in Nonmetropolitan Areas (U.S. DOC, 1997).

  • -Of the Rural Population in the United States, 40 Percent Are Assumed to Burn Their Household Waste in a Barrel (Two Rivers Region Council of Public Officials 1994).

  • -On Average, Each U.S. Citizen Generates 3.72 Pounds of Solid Waste (Excluding Yard Waste) Per Day (or 616 kg/person-yr) (U.S. EPA, 1996b).

  • -On Average, in Households that Dispose of Household Waste by Burning, Approximately 63 Percent of Waste Generated Is Burned (I.E., 63 Percent of 616 Kg/person-yr = 388 Kg/person-year) (Two Rivers Region Council of Public Officials 1994).


Emissions Estimate Barrels in rural areas

Emissions = (51.8 x 106 people)(40%)(388 kg/person-yr)

(77.7 ng WHO TEQDF/kg)

= 604 g TEQDF-WHO98


Summary and conclusions
Summary and Conclusions Barrels in rural areas

  • For commercial scale incinerators, dioxin emissions are primarily a product of incinerator design

  • Commercial scale incinerators with proper design, along with good operating practices, can prevent waste incineration from being a significant source of dioxin.

  • The uncontrolled burning of waste in communal burning dumps or by individual households can be a major dioxin source and for many countries it can be the dominate source .

  • The conversion of burning dumps to sanitary landfills and the phase out of most residential burning of waste is a key element for dioxin exposure reduction in both develop and developing countries.


Us adult average daily intake of cdds cdfs dioxin like pcbs1

Soil ingestion Barrels in rural areas

Vegetable fat

Soil dermal contact

Other meats

Poultry

Freshwaterfish and

shellfish

6%

Pork

5%

19%

Marine fish and shellfish

Beef

7%

14%

1%

Inhalation

4%

16%

Eggs

21%

Milk

Dairy

US Adult Average Daily Intake of CDDs/CDFs/dioxin-like PCBs

2000 Draft Estimate: ~ 65 pg TEQDFP-WHO98/day


Dioxin Uptake Into Meat And Dairy Barrels in rural areas


Emissions from Industrial Scale Sources Unlikely to Correlate Proportionally With General Population Exposures.

  • A Majority of the Combustion Sources Are Limited to a Few States

  • The Production of Animal Fats Is Also Concentrated in a Few States

  • Most Major Food Production States Are Are Upwind of Major Emission Production States

  • Open Burning Likely to be a Significant Source of Exposure

  • Reservoir Sources Could Be Significant Source of Exposure


Ongoing epa activities
Ongoing EPA Activities Correlate Proportionally With General Population Exposures.

  • Develop quality public information material that could be used by states, tribes, and localities to educate public officials and the general public about the detrimental consequences of BYB

  • Maintain the EPA BYB web site

  • Document successful case studies on education, legislation and infrastructure

  • Establish Peer to Peer mentoring network based around case studies

  • Continue to provide general technical and scientific support to the States


Three tiered approach education enforcement and infrastructure
Three Tiered Approach: Education, Enforcement, and Infrastructure

  • Educate government officials and the general public on the concerns of BYB.

  • Strengthen State local ordinances and compliance programs.

  • Strengthen infrastructure to provide real alternatives to BYB in rural areas.


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