Collapse of the Carolingian State: Four Themes
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Collapse of the Carolingian State: Four Themes 1. Family conflicts 2. Attacks from outside 3. Influence of the church 4. Influence of the secular nobility. Image Link: Carolingian Family Tree: < http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/ France-1stCarolingians.png >

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Collapse of the Carolingian State: Four Themes 1. Family conflicts 2. Attacks from outside

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Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Collapse of the Carolingian State: Four Themes

1. Family conflicts

2. Attacks from outside

3. Influence of the church

4. Influence of the secular nobility


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Image Link: Carolingian Family Tree:

<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/

France-1stCarolingians.png>

Map Link: The Treaty of Verdun, 843:

<http://tenthmedieval.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/

treaty_of_verdun_843ce_b.gif?w=500>


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

840-43 War between Lothar, Louis the German,

Charles the Bald and Pippin II of Aquitaine

841 Battle of Fontenoy

843 Treaty of Verdun

852 Imprisonment of Pippin II in monastery


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Ideology of familial love vs. ambition

855 Death of Lothar. Dissolution of Lothar’s

kingdom

Louis II (emperor, r. 855-75)

Lothar II (Lotharingia, r. 855-69)

Charles of Provence (r. 855-63)


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Map Link: Frankish Empire, 855:

<http://www.tacitus.nu/images/kartor/Frank/Frank855.png>

Map Link: Frankish Empire, 870:

<http://www.tacitus.nu/images/kartor/Frank/Frank870.png>


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

870 Treaty of Meersen. Negotiations over

Italy begin

Louis II (emperor, r. 855-75)

Louis the German (r. 833-76)

Charles the Bald (r. 840-77)

875 Charles the Bald takes Italy, imperial title


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

877-88 Ongoing conflict over Frankish empire

885 Brief reunification of empire by Charles the

Fat (r. 876-87, son of Louis the German)

887 Deposition of Charles the Fat by Arnulf of

Carinthia (r. 887-99)

888 Division of empire among mostly non-

Carolingians


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

846 Muslims attack Rome.

847 Lothar allies with papacy

Waves of Viking attacks, c. 835-91

Impact of Frankish defenses

Viking awareness of and involvement in

Frankish politics (e.g. alliance with

Pippin II in 855)


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Map Link: Invasions in the IXth-Xth Centuries:

<http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/religion402/topic%20

three/lecture%20three/invasion9th.jpg>


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Influence of the church:

Papal influence, e.g. John VIII (p. 872-82)

crowning Charles the Bald emperor

in 875

Reciprocal relationship of Charles the

Bald and the church: benefices,

immunities, privileges, preferments


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Influence of the secular nobility:

Buying support using honores (honours)

877 Quierzy Capitulary: honores

becoming hereditary

Noble factions, esp. Welfs (family of

Judith) and Robertians (family of

Robert the Strong)


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Influence of the secular nobility:

General noble support of Carolingian

kingship

888 Death of Charles the Fat. Division

of empire when no adult, male,

legitimate Carolingian heir

available. Arnulf of Carinthia/

E. Francia as illegitimate

Carolingian


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Reasons for the Carolingian Collapse?

1. Family conflicts

2. Attacks from outside

3. Influence of the church

4. Influence of the secular nobility

Also: Dynastic weakness? Division of

inheritance?


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Nithard (c. 800-843/44)

Grandson of Charlemagne by daughter Bertha

Received both religious and military

education

Sided with Charles the Bald in wars between

sons of Louis the Pious

Fought at Fontenoy in 841


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Nithard (c. 800-843/44)

De Dissensionibus Filiorum Ludovici Pii

ad Annum usque 843 (On the Dissensions

of the Sons of Louis the Pious up to the

Year 843), written at request of Charles

the Bald

Died in 843 or (probably) 844 fighting Vikings


Collapse of the carolingian state four themes 1 family conflicts 2 attacks from outside

Two Monastic Annals on the

Treaty of Verdun, 843

Annals of St-Bertin

Annals of Fulda


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