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Is a branch of science that deals with the properties, behavior and interaction between matter and energy. PHSYICS. Subdivisions of Physics. Classical Mechanics : study of motions based on Newton’s laws of mechanics

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Phsyics

Is a branch of science that deals with the properties, behavior and interaction between matter and energy

PHSYICS


Subdivisions of physics
Subdivisions of Physics behavior and interaction between matter and energy

  • Classical Mechanics: study of motions based on Newton’s laws of mechanics

  • Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics: study of energy conversion involving heat and other forms of energy

  • Electromagnetism: interaction of electricity and magnetism, affecting presence/motion of particles

  • Relativity: relationship of electromagnetism and mechanics

  • Quantum Mechanics: atomic and subatomic systems and their interaction w/ radiation


Measurements how far how large how much
Measurements behavior and interaction between matter and energyHow far? How large? How much?

BASIC QUANTITIES

Length: locates position of a point in space

Time: succession of events

Mass: amount of matter in a body


Derived quantities
DERIVED QUANTITIES behavior and interaction between matter and energy

  • Volume: amount of space an object takes up

EXAMPLE:

What is the volume of a cylinder which has a diameter of 6 cm and a height of 5 cm?

Formula: V = ∏r2h

Answer: 45 ∏ cm3


  • Density behavior and interaction between matter and energy: mass of an object per unit volume

    EXAMPLE

    What is the density of a 40 ft x 25 ft x 10 ft rectangular prism if it has a mass of 50000 grams?

    D = mass/volume

    Answer: 5 g/ft3


Units of measurement
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT behavior and interaction between matter and energy


Conversion of units
Conversion of Units behavior and interaction between matter and energy


How many behavior and interaction between matter and energymililiters are there in 3.45 L?

Answer: 3450 ml

Try these:

20 seconds = ? hours

10 m/s = ? km/h

10 cm3 = ? m3


Significant digits
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS behavior and interaction between matter and energy

  • Nonzero digits are always significant.

  • All final zeroes after decimal points are significant.

  • Zeroes between two other significant digits are always significant.

  • Zeroes used solely for spacing decimal points are not significant.


Scalars quantities described by magnitude alone
SCALARS behavior and interaction between matter and energyQuantities described by magnitude alone.

i.e. Length, mass, time, speed, energy, temperature, etc.

VECTORSQuantities described by both magnitude and direction.

i.e. Position, force, displacement, velocity, acceleration, torque, momentum ,etc.


Sense and direction of vectors can be represented in two ways
Sense and Direction behavior and interaction between matter and energyof vectors can be represented in two ways.

A. Four primary directions


Sense and direction of vectors can be represented in two ways1
Sense and Direction behavior and interaction between matter and energyof vectors can be represented in two ways.

B. Cartesian Plane


Mechanics branch of physics concerning the motions of objects and their response to forces
MECHANICS behavior and interaction between matter and energyBRANCH OF PHYSICS CONCERNING THE MOTIONS OF OBJECTS AND THEIR RESPONSE TO FORCES.

  • DISTANCE: scalar; how much ground an object can cover during its motion

  • DISPLACEMENT: vector; how far out of place an object is

    Displacement = final position – initial position


  • SPEED: scalar; behavior and interaction between matter and energyhow fast an object is moving

  • VELOCITY: vector; rate at which an object changes its position

    Average speed = distance travelled/elapsed time

    (s=d/t)

    Average velocity = ∆ in position/elapsed time

    (v=∆d/ ∆t)


  • Acceleration: vector; behavior and interaction between matter and energychange in velocity over a time interval

  • Positive direction of motion: acceleration

  • Negative direction: deceleration

    A = (final velocity – initial velocity)/ elapsed time

    A = ∆V/ ∆T


What is the average speed of a car that travels 330 km in 11 hours?

s = d/t = 330 km/11hrs = 30 km/hr

A cart accelerates from 88 m/s to 121 m/s in 11 s. What is its acceleration?

A = ∆v/ ∆t = (121-88)/11 = 3 m/s2


Uniformly accelerated motion uam
Uniformly Accelerated Motion hours?(UAM)

  • Vf = Vi + at

  • D = Vit + 1/2at2

  • Vf2 = Vi2 + 2ad


An automobile is moving at hours?5 m/s and accelerates at 0.5 m/s2.

What is the velocity after 20 s? What is the distance travelled by the car?



Newton s laws of motion
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION influence of gravity.

  • Law of Inertia

  • an object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion, unless it is compelled to change that state by external forces.

    Inertia: property of matter that resists changes in motion

    Mechanical Equilibrium: achieved when sum of all forces acting upon an object is zero.


  • Law of Acceleration influence of gravity.

  • The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting upon it and inversely proportional to its mass

    A = force / mass

    Force: push or pull done on an object that changes its state of motion


  • Law of Interaction influence of gravity.

  • Every action elicits an equal and opposite reaction

    FREE BODY DIAGRAMS

    SHOW RELATIVE MAGNITUDE AND DIRECTION OF ALL FORCES ACTING UPON AN OBJECT IN A GIVEN SITUATION.


Special topics
SPECIAL TOPICS influence of gravity.

  • Projectile motion: motion in two dimensions

    Horizontal (x-axis) component of motion

    X = Vicosθt

    Vertical (y-axis) component of motion

    Y = Visinθt + 1/2gt2


  • Uniform Circular Motion influence of gravity.: motion in a circular path

    - velocity changes in direction yet the magnitude remains constant, thus motion is accelerate

    - direction of acceleration is inward due to centripetal force


  • Torque influence of gravity.: tendency of a force to rotate an object about some axis

    Torque = FI

    *where F = force applied perpendicularly; I = distance of applied force from fulcrum/axis

    Linear Momentum and Collisions

    P = mass x velocity = mv

    *where P = momentum


Energy
ENERGY influence of gravity.

  • Law of conservation of energy

  • Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

    MECHANICAL ENERGY: energy possessed by a body due to its position (Potential energy) or motion (Kinetic energy)

    ME = PE + KE


Energy1
ENERGY influence of gravity.

  • Potential Energy (PE) – energy possessed by a body due to its position, shape, and configuration

    PE = mgh

  • Kinetic Energy (KE) – energy of motion

    KE = 1/2mv2


Work and power
Work and Power influence of gravity.

Work = Force x Distance

Power = Work / Time

*unit for power is the Joule/second or simply watt.


Waves
WAVES influence of gravity.

  • A disturbance that travels through a medium, transporting energy to another location without transporting matter

  • Transverse: particles move perpendicular to the direction of the wave

  • Longitudinal: particles move parallel to direction of the wave

  • Surface: particles undergo a circular motion


Wave properties
WAVE PROPERTIES influence of gravity.


Electricity
ELECTRICITY influence of gravity.

Ohm’s Law

V = IR

I – Current; unit: ampere (A)

V – Voltage; unit: volt (V)

R – Resistance; unit: ohm (Ω)


Electric circuits
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS influence of gravity.

  • Series: current is constant; voltage adds up


  • Parallel influence of gravity.: current adds up; voltage is constant


Optics
OPTICS influence of gravity.

  • Reflection: change in direction of a light ray in an interface with dissimilar media so that the wave returns into the medium from which it originated

    Law of Reflection

    Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection


  • Refraction influence of gravity.: change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed when passing through a different medium

    Law of Refraction

    n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2


Plane mirros
PLANE MIRROS influence of gravity.

Image characteristics: virtual, upright, same distance from the mirror as the object’s distance, same size as the object


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