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IAS 12 : Income Taxes. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (Set up by an Act of Parliament). IAS 12 v AS 22. Concept IAS 12 : Temporary Difference AS 22 : Timing Difference Approach IAS 12 : Balance Sheet AS 22 : Profit & Loss Account Method

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Ias 12 income taxes

IAS 12 : Income Taxes

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India(Set up by an Act of Parliament)


Ias 12 v as 22
IAS 12 v AS 22

  • Concept

    • IAS 12 : Temporary Difference

    • AS 22 : Timing Difference

  • Approach

    • IAS 12 : Balance Sheet

    • AS 22 : Profit & Loss Account

  • Method

    • IAS 12 : BS liability method

    • AS 22 : Deferral method


Objective
Objective

  • Where to account the tax consequences

  • Principle

    • In the same way that it accounts for the transactions and events themselves

  • Tax consequences of transactions and events recognized

    • In profit or loss account:

    • Outside profit & loss account

      • Statement of other comprehensive income

      • Equity


Computation of current tax
Computation of Current Tax

Current tax liabilities (assets)

  • for the current and prior periods

  • shall be measured at the amount

  • expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities,

  • using the tax rates and tax laws

  • that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period


Deferred tax
Deferred Tax

  • Fundamental Principle

    • An entity should recognize a deferred tax liability (asset)

    • whenever recovery or settlement of the carrying amount of an asset or liability

    • would make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be

    • if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences.


Computation of deferred tax balance sheet liability method
Computation of Deferred TaxBalance Sheet Liability Method

  • (a) Carrying amount of asset / liability

  • (b) Tax base of asset / liability

  • (c) Temporary Difference (a-b)

  • (d) Applicable tax rate: x %

  • (e) Deferred tax: (c x d)


Computation of deferred tax

Computation of Deferred Tax

Step (a)

Compute Carrying Amount


Carrying amount
Carrying Amount

  • Carrying amount of an asset or liability is the value of the asset or liability appearing in the balance sheet


Computation of deferred tax1

Computation of Deferred Tax

Step (b)

Compute Tax Base


Tax base
Tax Base

  • Tax base of an asset or liability is the amount attributable to that asset or liability for tax purposes

  • Four types:

    • Tax base of an asset

    • Tax base of a liability

    • Tax base with no recognized carrying amounts

    • Tax base not immediately apparent


Tax base of an asset
Tax Base of an Asset

  • Is the amount

  • that will be deductible for tax purposes

  • against any taxable economic benefits that will flow to an entity

  • when it recovers the carrying amount of the asset

    If those economic benefits will not be taxable, the tax base of the asset is equal to its carrying amount


Tax base of an asset1
Tax Base of an Asset

  • Tax base of an asset = Carrying value – Future taxable amounts + Future deductible amounts

  • Illustration follows:-


Tax base of an asset2
Tax Base of an Asset

Illustration:

A machine cost INR 100. For tax purposes, depreciation of INR 30 has already been deducted. Revenue generated by using the machine will be taxable. For accounting purposes, the machine has been depreciated by INR 20.

Applying the formula we have:


Tax base of a liability
Tax Base of a Liability

  • Is its carrying amount,

  • less any amount that will be deductible for tax purposes

  • in respect of that liability in future periods

    In the case of revenue that is received in advance, the tax base of the resulting liability is its carrying amount, less any amount of the revenue that will not be taxable in future periods


Tax base of a liability1
Tax Base of a Liability

  • Tax base of a liability = Carrying value – Future deductible amounts + Future taxable amounts

  • Illustration follows:-


Tax base of a liability2
Tax Base of a Liability

Illustration:

A loan payable has a carrying value of INR 100 at the balance sheet date. The repayment of the loan will have no tax consequences.

Applying the formula we have:


Tax base of a liability3
Tax Base of a Liability

Illustration:

Foreign currency loan payable has a carrying value of INR 95 after recognizing an exchange gain of INR 5 in the income statement. Exchange gains are taxable only when realized.

Applying the formula we have:


Tax base of a liability4
Tax Base of a Liability

  • Tax base of revenue received in advance = Carrying value – Amount of revenue that will not be taxable in future periods amounts

  • Illustration follows:-


Tax base of a liability5
Tax Base of a Liability

Tax base of revenue received in advance

Illustration:

Rents received in advance at the balance sheet date amounted to INR 100. The rental income will be taxed in future periods.

Applying the formula we have:


Tax base of a liability6
Tax Base of a Liability

Tax base of revenue received in advance

Illustration:

A government grant of INR 100 is recognized at the balance sheet date as deferred income rather than being deducted against the cost of the asset. No tax is payable on receipt or subsequent amortization. The cost of the asset is fully deductible.

Applying the formula we have:


Tax base with no recognized carrying amounts
Tax base with no Recognized Carrying Amounts

Expenditure expensed out in accounts but is carried forward in the tax balance sheet

Illustration:

IPO expenditure of INR 100 expensed out in accounts in the year of IPO but as per taxation laws allowable equally over 5 years.

Applying the formula we have:


Tax base not immediately apparent
Tax Base not immediately apparent

  • Apply fundamental principle

  • Fundamental Principle

    • An entity should recognize a deferred tax liability (asset)

    • whenever recovery or settlement of the carrying amount of an asset or liability

    • would make future tax payments larger (smaller) than they would be

    • if such recovery or settlement were to have no tax consequences.


Computation of deferred tax2

Computation of Deferred Tax

Step (c)

Compute Temporary Difference


Temporary differences
Temporary Differences

  • Are differences between

    • the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the statement of financial position

    • and its tax base.


Compute temporary difference
Compute Temporary Difference

Exercise :

A machine cost INR 100. For tax purposes, depreciation of INR 30 has already been deducted. Revenue generated by using the machine will be taxable. For accounting purposes, the machine has been depreciated by INR 20.

Applying the formula of ‘Tax Base’ we have:

Temporary Difference = 10


Temporary differences1
Temporary Differences

  • May be either

    • Taxable temporary difference (DTL)

    • Deductible temporary difference (DTA)


Temporary differences2
Temporary Differences

  • Taxable temporary differences

    • Which are temporary differences that will result

    • in taxable amounts

    • in determining taxable profit of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset is recovered or settled.

  • Deductible temporary differences

    • Which are temporary differences that will result

    • in amounts that are deductible

    • in determining taxable profit of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset is recovered or settled

  • Exercises follows:-


Compute temporary difference1
Compute Temporary Difference

Exercise :

A machine cost INR 100. For tax purposes, depreciation of INR 30 has already been deducted. Revenue generated by using the machine will be taxable. For accounting purposes, the machine has been depreciated by INR 20.

Applying the formula of ‘Tax Base’ we have:

Taxable Temporary Difference = 10


Compute temporary difference nature
Compute Temporary Difference / Nature

Exercise:

Trade debtors have a carrying value of INR 95 after recognizing a general bad debt provision of INR 5. The original amount of INR 100 has already been included in taxable profits. The provision for bad debts is not tax deductible, but would be so when the provision becomes specific.

Applying the formula of 'Tax Base', we have:

Deductible Temporary Difference = 5



Computation of deferred tax3

Computation of Deferred Tax

Step (d)

Compute Tax Rate


Measurement tax rate
Measurement – Tax Rate

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall

  • shall be measured at the tax rates

  • that are expected to apply to the period

  • when the asset is realized or the liability is settled

  • based on the tax rates and tax laws

  • that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period


General principle measurement
General Principle - Measurement

  • How recovery

    • Use

    • Sale

    • Use and sale

  • How tax

    • If use – business profits

    • If sale – capital gains

    • In sale – indexation

  • Principle

    • Consistent with the manner in which the entity’s management expects at the balance sheet date to recover or settle the carrying amount of assets or liabilities


Measurement tax rate1
Measurement – Tax Rate

Change in tax rates:-

The tax rate applicable to an entity may change as a result of changes in relevant legislation. Any impact of the changes will be recognized in accounting periods ending on or after the date of substantive enactments.


Computation of deferred tax4

Computation of Deferred Tax

Step (e)

Recognize Deferred Tax


Deferred tax1
Deferred Tax

Deferred tax liabilities

  • Are the amounts of income taxes

  • payable in future periods

  • in respect of

  • taxable temporary differences


  • Deferred tax2
    Deferred Tax

    • Deferred tax assets

      • are the amounts of income taxes

      • payable in future periods

      • in respect of

        • Deductible temporary differences

        • The carry forward of unused tax losses

        • The carry forward of unused tax credits


    Deferred tax recognition
    Deferred Tax - Recognition

    • Deferred tax liability

      • should be recognized for all taxable temporary differences.


    Deferred tax recognition1
    Deferred Tax - Recognition

    • Deferred tax asset

      • should be recognized for all deductible temporary differences

      • To the extent that it is probable

      • that taxable profit will be available

      • against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilized

    • Probable means more likely than not



    Deferred tax reassessment
    Deferred Tax - Reassessment

    • Reassess at each reporting period

      • Recognize unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent it has become probable that future taxable profits will be available

      • Reduce the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available


    Deferred tax change in amount
    Deferred Tax – Change in Amount

    • Query

      • Can the carrying amount

      • of deferred tax change

      • even though there is no change

      • in the amount of related temporary difference?

    • Yes, for example:-

      • Change in tax rates

      • Change in tax laws

      • A reassessment of the recoverability of DTA

      • A change in the expected manner of recovery of an asset – (from use to sale or vice-versa)


    Discounting
    Discounting

    • Should deferred tax assets and liabilities be discounted?

    • No


    Offset
    Offset

    • Current tax assets and current tax liabilities

    • if and only if the entity

      • has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts; and

      • Intends

        • either to settle on a net basis, or

        • to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously


    Offset1
    Offset

    • Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities

    • if and only if

      • the entity has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and

      • The deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on

        • either the same taxable entities; or

        • Different taxable entities

          • which intend either to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis, or

          • to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously,

          • In each future period in which significant amounts of deferred tax liabilities or assets are expected to be settled or recovered.


    Disclosures
    Disclosures

    • Balance Sheet

    • Performance Statement

    • Notes


    Disclosures1
    Disclosures

    • Current / Non-current classification

      • Current tax: Current asset – liability

      • Deferred tax: Non-current asset – liability

    • Classification based on liquidity

      • Current tax: more liquid

      • Deferred tax: less liquid

    • Question:

      • Do we need to disclose amount of deferred tax to be recovered or settled after more than 12 months? [IAS 1(61)]


    Disclosures2
    Disclosures

    • Recognize current & deferred tax in Income (PL) Statement except when tax arises out of transaction recognized in

      • Other comprehensive income

      • Directly in equity

      • Business combination


    Disclosures3
    Disclosures

    • What if there are graduated rates of income-tax and it is not possible to determine the rate at which a specific component of taxable profit has been taxed?

    • Adopt

      • Reasonable pro-rata allocation

      • Any other method that adopts a more appropriate allocation


    Disclosures notes
    Disclosures - Notes

    • General

    • Analysis of tax expense

    • Discontinued operation

    • Explanation of relationship between tax expense and accounting profit

    • Analysis of deferred tax assets / liabilities

    • Unrecognized temporary differences

    • Tax consequences of dividends

    • Deferred tax asset of loss making entities

    • Business combinations

    • Tax related contingencies

    • Post balance sheet changes in tax rates


    Pravin tulsyan 09818495674

    Pravin Tulsyan09818495674


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