Chapter 18 americans in world war ii
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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II. Section 1: Early Difficulties Section 2: The Home Front Section 3: Victory in Europe Section 4: Victory in Asia. Section 1: Early Difficulties. Objectives:. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Allied Powers and Axis Powers in 1941?

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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II

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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Section 2: The Home Front

Section 3: Victory in Europe

Section 4: Victory in Asia


Section 1: Early Difficulties

Objectives:

  • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Allied Powers and Axis Powers in 1941?

  • What steps did the United States take to prepare for war?

  • Where did the Japanese military attack after Pearl Harbor?

  • What were the early turning points of the war in the Pacific?

  • What were the major battles in Europe and North Africa in 1942?


Section 1: Early Difficulties

Allied Powers

  • Production capacity of U.S. and manpower of Soviet Union were advantages.

  • Disadvantages included the enormous amount of land in enemy hands, the multi-front aspect of the war, and the long fight that had to be faced.


Section 1: Early Difficulties

Axis Powers

  • Axis was better prepared economically and had been rearmed since the 1930s.

  • Axis had firm control over invaded areas and already had airfields, barracks, and military training centers.

  • Axis powers’ main difficulty was defending multiple fronts.


Section 1: Early Difficulties

U.S. preparations for war

  • increased production

  • expanded the government

  • began to direct the economy

  • began to raise the army


Increased Production

  • Arsenal – is a factory that makes ammunitions for the military.

  • U.S. arsenal employment went from 22,000 to 486,000 in three years!


Increased Production

  • From 1940 to 1945 American manufacturing made large quantities of jeeps tanks plains, and guns.


Increased Production

  • 88,000 landing craft, 215 submarines, 147 aircraft carriers, 952 other warships, and 5,200 merchant ships.


Government expansion

  • War Production Board WPB

    • Conversion of factories to make war goods

    • Started in January 1942 by Roosevelt

  • Office of War Mobilization OWM

    • May of 1943

    • Controlled by James F. Byrnes


Directing the Economy

  • Office of Price Administration OPA

    • Kept inflation low

    • Rationing of key materials

    • Selling war bonds


Raising and Army

  • Selective Training

    • Was a necessary law required to allow the government to train troops in peace time.

  • Selective Service

    • AKA the draft

    • 21 – 35 had to register

    • Then later 18 – 45


Raising and Army

  • Women's Auxiliary Army Corps WAAC


Raising and Army

  • Women's air force Service WASP


Section 1: Early Difficulties

Japanese attacks after Pearl Harbor

  • Clark Airforce Base in the Philippines

  • Burma

  • Borneo

  • the Netherlands East Indies

  • Wake Island

  • Hong Kong


Douglas MacArthur

  • In control of the force in the Philippines.

  • Graduate from West Point

  • As the war ramped up MacArthur was placed in charge of the entire war in the Pacific.


Bataan Death March

  • Douglas MacArthur was ordered to remove himself from the Phillipines.

  • As he left he declared that he would be back.

  • 10,000 POWs died.

  • There was a total of 70,000 POW’sa


Clarke air force Base

  • Attack on December 8, 1941.

  • First attack on the Philippines

  • For the next two week there was an on slot of Japanese attacks on islands in South East Asia


Section 1: Early Difficulties

Early turning points of war in Pacific

  • Battle of the Coral Sea

  • Battle of Midway

  • Guadalcanal


Chester Nimitz

  • Leader of the U.S. Pacific Fleet

  • Aggressive leader.


Battle of the Coral Sea

  • May 7, 1942

  • Allied Victory


Battle of the Midway

  • June 1942

  • Two prong attack

    • One prong attacked Alaska

    • The main prong attacked a U.S. Military base in the Pacific


Battle of the Guadalcanal

  • August 1942

  • First major offensive battle

  • Troops landed

  • Ferocious fighting


Section 1: Early Difficulties

Major battles of 1942 in Europe and North Africa

  • Battle of El Alamein

  • Battle of Stalingrad


Battle for North Africa

  • Many battles were fought in North Africa

  • El Alamein Egypt was one of the most critical battles for both sides


  • Commander of German AfrikaKorps

  • Nicknamed Desert Fox

Erwin Rommel


  • British Leader

  • Key leader for stopping the Desert Fox

Bernard Montgomery


  • Critical battle in the Eastern European Front

  • Between this battle and the battle of El Alamein this help turn the tide in the war

Stalingrad


Section 2: The Home Front

Objectives:

  • How did the U.S. government try to keep wartime morale high?

  • What was life like in the United States during World War II?

  • How did women contribute to the war effort?

  • What actions did the government take to protect the rights of minority groups?

  • How were Japanese Americans affected by the war?


Section 2: The Home Front

Keeping wartime morale high

  • Office of War Information

  • radio programs

  • movies


Section 2: The Home Front

Life in the U.S. during WWII

  • long work hours and many sacrifices

  • restrictions

  • blackouts

  • air-raid drills

  • victory gardens


Section 2: The Home Front

Contributions of women

  • entered job market to replace soldiers

  • worked in plants

  • produced war products


Section 2: The Home Front

Government actions to protect minority rights

  • Fair Employment Practices Committee

  • attempts to end discrimination in businesses with federal contracts


Section 2: The Home Front

Effects on Japanese Americans

  • Many were relocated and interned.

  • Interned people lost their property.

  • Hawaiian islands put under martial law because Japanese population was too large to relocate.

  • Some Japanese received limited military service opportunities.


Section 3: Victory in Europe

Objectives:

  • Where did the Allied offensive in Europe begin?

  • How did fighting in the Atlantic and in the air influence the land war in Europe?

  • How did the Allies successfully carry out the Normandy invasion?

  • What was the Holocaust?

  • How did the Allies finally defeat Germany?


Section 3: Victory in Europe

Allied offensive in Europe

The Allied offensive in Europe began in Sicily and Italy.


Section 3: Victory in Europe

Effects of fighting in the Atlantic and in the air on the land war

  • Sea dominance allowed the Allies to protect cargo ships and bomb Axis vessels.

  • Strategic bombing from the air helped destroy German military factories and centers.


Section 3: Victory in Europe

The Normandy Invasion

  • invasion of German-occupied France

  • disinformation campaign to distract Germans

  • dummy invasion used as a decoy

  • initial storming of beach caused high casualties

  • ultimately successful


Section 3: Victory in Europe

The Holocaust

The Holocaust was Nazi Germany’s slaughter of European Jews. The Germans took advantage of long-standing anti-Semitism and Allied inaction to do it.


Section 3: Victory in Europe

Final defeat of Germany

  • September, 1944: Battle of the Bulge

  • February, 1945: Yalta Conference

  • early 1945: Allies bomb Germany

  • March, 1945: Allies invade Germany

  • April, 1945: Hitler commits suicide

  • May, 1945: Germany surrenders


Section 4: Victory in Asia

Objectives:

  • How did the United States carry out its island-hopping plan?

  • How did the battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa affect the war?

  • What led the United States to use atomic weapons against Japan?

  • What were the human and economic costs of World War II?


Section 4: Victory in Asia

Island-hopping

  • conquered strategically important islands

  • cut off other islands

  • some islands chosen as launching pads for invasion of Japan


Section 4: Victory in Asia

Iwo Jima and Okinawa

These two battles were incredibly difficult and bloody, and though the U.S. won, the fighting demonstrated that the Japanese would not surrender.


Section 4: Victory in Asia

Reasons for use of the atomic bomb

  • enormous cost of an invasion

  • continued Japanese resistance

  • desire to demonstrate U.S. power to the Soviet Union


Section 4: Victory in Asia

Costs of World War II

  • killed millions of people and wounded many more

  • resulted in the Holocaust

  • destroyed economies of many nations

  • ruined countless cities

  • destroyed national infrastructures


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