Chapter 18 americans in world war ii
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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II. Section 1: Early Difficulties Section 2: The Home Front Section 3: Victory in Europe Section 4: Victory in Asia. Section 1: Early Difficulties. Objectives:. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Allied Powers and Axis Powers in 1941?

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Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II

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Chapter 18 americans in world war ii

Chapter 18 AMERICANS IN WORLD WAR II

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Section 2: The Home Front

Section 3: Victory in Europe

Section 4: Victory in Asia


Objectives

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Objectives:

  • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Allied Powers and Axis Powers in 1941?

  • What steps did the United States take to prepare for war?

  • Where did the Japanese military attack after Pearl Harbor?

  • What were the early turning points of the war in the Pacific?

  • What were the major battles in Europe and North Africa in 1942?


Allied powers

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Allied Powers

  • Production capacity of U.S. and manpower of Soviet Union were advantages.

  • Disadvantages included the enormous amount of land in enemy hands, the multi-front aspect of the war, and the long fight that had to be faced.


Axis powers

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Axis Powers

  • Axis was better prepared economically and had been rearmed since the 1930s.

  • Axis had firm control over invaded areas and already had airfields, barracks, and military training centers.

  • Axis powers’ main difficulty was defending multiple fronts.


U s preparations for war

Section 1: Early Difficulties

U.S. preparations for war

  • increased production

  • expanded the government

  • began to direct the economy

  • began to raise the army


Increased production

Increased Production

  • Arsenal – is a factory that makes ammunitions for the military.

  • U.S. arsenal employment went from 22,000 to 486,000 in three years!


Increased production1

Increased Production

  • From 1940 to 1945 American manufacturing made large quantities of jeeps tanks plains, and guns.


Increased production2

Increased Production

  • 88,000 landing craft, 215 submarines, 147 aircraft carriers, 952 other warships, and 5,200 merchant ships.


Government expansion

Government expansion

  • War Production Board WPB

    • Conversion of factories to make war goods

    • Started in January 1942 by Roosevelt

  • Office of War Mobilization OWM

    • May of 1943

    • Controlled by James F. Byrnes


Directing the economy

Directing the Economy

  • Office of Price Administration OPA

    • Kept inflation low

    • Rationing of key materials

    • Selling war bonds


Raising and army

Raising and Army

  • Selective Training

    • Was a necessary law required to allow the government to train troops in peace time.

  • Selective Service

    • AKA the draft

    • 21 – 35 had to register

    • Then later 18 – 45


Raising and army1

Raising and Army

  • Women's Auxiliary Army Corps WAAC


Raising and army2

Raising and Army

  • Women's air force Service WASP


Japanese attacks after pearl harbor

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Japanese attacks after Pearl Harbor

  • Clark Airforce Base in the Philippines

  • Burma

  • Borneo

  • the Netherlands East Indies

  • Wake Island

  • Hong Kong


Douglas macarthur

Douglas MacArthur

  • In control of the force in the Philippines.

  • Graduate from West Point

  • As the war ramped up MacArthur was placed in charge of the entire war in the Pacific.


Bataan death march

Bataan Death March

  • Douglas MacArthur was ordered to remove himself from the Phillipines.

  • As he left he declared that he would be back.

  • 10,000 POWs died.

  • There was a total of 70,000 POW’sa


Clarke air force base

Clarke air force Base

  • Attack on December 8, 1941.

  • First attack on the Philippines

  • For the next two week there was an on slot of Japanese attacks on islands in South East Asia


Early turning points of war in pacific

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Early turning points of war in Pacific

  • Battle of the Coral Sea

  • Battle of Midway

  • Guadalcanal


Chester nimitz

Chester Nimitz

  • Leader of the U.S. Pacific Fleet

  • Aggressive leader.


Battle of the coral sea

Battle of the Coral Sea

  • May 7, 1942

  • Allied Victory


Battle of the midway

Battle of the Midway

  • June 1942

  • Two prong attack

    • One prong attacked Alaska

    • The main prong attacked a U.S. Military base in the Pacific


Battle of the guadalcanal

Battle of the Guadalcanal

  • August 1942

  • First major offensive battle

  • Troops landed

  • Ferocious fighting


Major battles of 1942 in europe and north africa

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Major battles of 1942 in Europe and North Africa

  • Battle of El Alamein

  • Battle of Stalingrad


Battle for north africa

Battle for North Africa

  • Many battles were fought in North Africa

  • El Alamein Egypt was one of the most critical battles for both sides


Erwin rommel

  • Commander of German AfrikaKorps

  • Nicknamed Desert Fox

Erwin Rommel


Bernard montgomery

  • British Leader

  • Key leader for stopping the Desert Fox

Bernard Montgomery


Stalingrad

  • Critical battle in the Eastern European Front

  • Between this battle and the battle of El Alamein this help turn the tide in the war

Stalingrad


Objectives1

Section 2: The Home Front

Objectives:

  • How did the U.S. government try to keep wartime morale high?

  • What was life like in the United States during World War II?

  • How did women contribute to the war effort?

  • What actions did the government take to protect the rights of minority groups?

  • How were Japanese Americans affected by the war?


Keeping wartime morale high

Section 2: The Home Front

Keeping wartime morale high

  • Office of War Information

  • radio programs

  • movies


Life in the u s during wwii

Section 2: The Home Front

Life in the U.S. during WWII

  • long work hours and many sacrifices

  • restrictions

  • blackouts

  • air-raid drills

  • victory gardens


Contributions of women

Section 2: The Home Front

Contributions of women

  • entered job market to replace soldiers

  • worked in plants

  • produced war products


Government actions to protect minority rights

Section 2: The Home Front

Government actions to protect minority rights

  • Fair Employment Practices Committee

  • attempts to end discrimination in businesses with federal contracts


Effects on japanese americans

Section 2: The Home Front

Effects on Japanese Americans

  • Many were relocated and interned.

  • Interned people lost their property.

  • Hawaiian islands put under martial law because Japanese population was too large to relocate.

  • Some Japanese received limited military service opportunities.


Objectives2

Section 3: Victory in Europe

Objectives:

  • Where did the Allied offensive in Europe begin?

  • How did fighting in the Atlantic and in the air influence the land war in Europe?

  • How did the Allies successfully carry out the Normandy invasion?

  • What was the Holocaust?

  • How did the Allies finally defeat Germany?


Allied offensive in europe

Section 3: Victory in Europe

Allied offensive in Europe

The Allied offensive in Europe began in Sicily and Italy.


Effects of fighting in the atlantic and in the air on the land war

Section 3: Victory in Europe

Effects of fighting in the Atlantic and in the air on the land war

  • Sea dominance allowed the Allies to protect cargo ships and bomb Axis vessels.

  • Strategic bombing from the air helped destroy German military factories and centers.


The normandy invasion

Section 3: Victory in Europe

The Normandy Invasion

  • invasion of German-occupied France

  • disinformation campaign to distract Germans

  • dummy invasion used as a decoy

  • initial storming of beach caused high casualties

  • ultimately successful


The holocaust

Section 3: Victory in Europe

The Holocaust

The Holocaust was Nazi Germany’s slaughter of European Jews. The Germans took advantage of long-standing anti-Semitism and Allied inaction to do it.


Final defeat of germany

Section 3: Victory in Europe

Final defeat of Germany

  • September, 1944: Battle of the Bulge

  • February, 1945: Yalta Conference

  • early 1945: Allies bomb Germany

  • March, 1945: Allies invade Germany

  • April, 1945: Hitler commits suicide

  • May, 1945: Germany surrenders


Objectives3

Section 4: Victory in Asia

Objectives:

  • How did the United States carry out its island-hopping plan?

  • How did the battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa affect the war?

  • What led the United States to use atomic weapons against Japan?

  • What were the human and economic costs of World War II?


Island hopping

Section 4: Victory in Asia

Island-hopping

  • conquered strategically important islands

  • cut off other islands

  • some islands chosen as launching pads for invasion of Japan


Iwo jima and okinawa

Section 4: Victory in Asia

Iwo Jima and Okinawa

These two battles were incredibly difficult and bloody, and though the U.S. won, the fighting demonstrated that the Japanese would not surrender.


Reasons for use of the atomic bomb

Section 4: Victory in Asia

Reasons for use of the atomic bomb

  • enormous cost of an invasion

  • continued Japanese resistance

  • desire to demonstrate U.S. power to the Soviet Union


Costs of world war ii

Section 4: Victory in Asia

Costs of World War II

  • killed millions of people and wounded many more

  • resulted in the Holocaust

  • destroyed economies of many nations

  • ruined countless cities

  • destroyed national infrastructures


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