The Ferment of Reform and Culture. 1790 to 1860. Religious liberalism:. Secular rationalism Deism – (Jefferson, Franklin, and Paine) – relied on reason rather than revelation – scientific
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1790 to 1860
Helped start the Second Great AwakeningPeter CartwrightBorn: Sept. 1,1785 Died: Sept. 25,1872
Often called one of "America's foremost revivalist“
Encouraged women to pray
Opposed liquor and slaveryCharles Grandison Finney 1792 – 1875
Voted as a unit
MurderedJoseph SmithBorn: 23-Dec-1805 Died: 27-Jun-1844
Second prophet of the Latter Day Saints. (Mormons)
Led followers to Utah
Utah grew and became prosperous
Theocracy – cooperative commonwealthBrigham YoungBorn: 1-Jun-1801 Died: 29-Aug-1877
Advocated for public education
basis of quality education is good teachers
Wanted longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, expanded curriculum
Pushed for reform in mental institutions and called for the end of slavery.
Known as "the father of the American common school“ - to serve individuals of all social classes and religions.Horace MannBorn: 4-May-1796 Died: 2-Aug-1859
Standardized the American languageNoah WebsterBorn: 16-Oct-1758 Died: 28-May-1843
McGuffey’s Reader (Mormons)
Text for most schools from 1836-1900
Contained religious messages
Sought to instill morality, patriotism, and idealism
122,000,000 copies soldWilliam H. McGuffeyBorn: Sept. 23,1800(in PA.) Died: 1873
Women's rights advocate (Mormons)
1821 founded the first women's school of higher education, the Troy Female Seminary.
Troy became famous, offering collegiate education to women and new opportunity to women teachers.Emma WillardBorn Feb. 23, 1787 Died April 15, 1870
Drafted the Declaration of Sentiments (Demanded the vote at Seneca Falls)
Co –organized Seneca FallsElizabeth Cady StantonBorn: 12-Nov-1815 Died: 26-Oct-1902
Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony
In 1869, she and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Woman's Suffrage Association (NWSA)
Arrested and fined for trying to vote in the 1872 Presidential election
Age 26Susan B. AnthonyBorn: 15-Feb-1820 Died: 13-Mar-1906
1849 she became the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States.Barred from practice in most hospitals, she founded her own infirmary, the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children, in 1857.Elizabeth BlackwellBorn: February 3, 1821 Died: May 31, 1910
Friend of 1865-90 Ralph Waldo Emerson and associated with transcendentalism
Edited the transcendentalist journal, The Dial from 1840 to 1842
Joined Horace Greeley's New York Tribune as literary critic
First female journalist to work on the staff of a major newspaper.
Fuller's major work, Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), argued for the independence of women.Margaret FullerBorn: 23-May-1810 Died: 19-Jul-1850
New Moral World 1865-90
Owen's envisioned successor of New Harmony. Owenites
fired bricks to build it, but construction never took place.Robert OwenBorn: 14-May-1771 Died: 17-Nov-1858
American utopian socialist. He founded the 1865-90 Oneida Community in 1848.
There were smaller communities in Wallingford, Conn.; Newark, NJ; Putney,Vt; and Cambridge, Vt.
The Oneida Community dissolved in 1880,John Humphrey NoyesBorn: Sept. 3, 1811 Died: April 13, 1886
American naturalist 1865-90
He painted, catalogued, and described the birds of North America.
Published Birds of America, in 1838.John James AudubonBorn: 26-Apr-1785 (in Haiti) Died: 27-Jan-1851
American Presbyterian minister 1865-90
Early advocate of dietary reform
Vegetarianism and temperance movement
1829 - invented Graham flour and Graham bread, made from unsifted and unbolted flour and free from chemical additives
Used to make graham crackers and other products.Sylvester GrahamBorn: July 5, 1794 Died: September 11, 1851
The Hudson River School of Art
The Hudson River School used a Romantic approach to depict scenes of America's wilderness, drawing inspiration from the Hudson River Valley, the Catskills, the Berkshires and the newly opened West.
Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty and Asher B. Durand were among the early practitioners of this style and they had a significant influence on the artists that followed them.
Thomas Cole was a teenager when his family emigrated from England. He was a passionate devotee of the scenery of his adopted country. Cole is considered to be the finest American landscape artist of the 19th Century.
1825 to 1875 was a time of powerful national pride in the United States. The dramatic and uniquely American landscapes by Thomas Cole prompted a positive response from the American public. Inspiration and spectacular natural beauty are reflected in the famous paintings, Niagara by Frederic Edwin Church, and Yellowstone Falls by Albert Bierstadt.
Thomas Doughty was one of the first American painters to restrict himself to landscape painting as his genre. Some consider him the catalyst for the Hudson River School given he was the one who recognized early on the magnificent subject matter offered within the American countryside.
Asher B. Durand's early career was as an engraver. When he began to paint it was as first a portraitist before turning his attention to nature. Cole was a major inspiration upon him.
The Hudson River School looked into the conflict between modernity and nature as well as the effects of increasing industrialization and westward expansion.
Portrait of George Washington for the White House, 1797. This is the painting that Dolley Madison rescued when the White House was burned during the War of 1812
George Washington (a.k.a.: the "Athenaeum Head;" ca. 1798; Stuart copy of [unfinished] 1796 original),Gilbert Stuart
American artist of the colonial period, famous for his portraits of important figures in colonial New England, particularly men and women of the middle class.
His portraits were innovative in that they tended to portray their subjects with artifacts that were indicative of their lives.
Portrait of Copley by Gilbert Stuart.John Singleton CopleyBorn: July 3, 1738 Died: September 9, 1815
Portrait of the Copley family portraits of important figures in colonial New England, particularly men and women of the middle class., 1776
Portrait of Samuel Adams
Portrait of Paul RevereJohn Singleton Copley
Leatherstocking Tales, portraits of important figures in colonial New England, particularly men and women of the middle class.a series of novels featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, known by European settlers as "Leatherstocking," andby the Native Americans as "Pathfinder," "Deerslayer," or "Hawkeye".
Best known of the series is The Last of the MohicansJames Fenimore CooperBorn: 15-Sep-1789 Died: 14-Sep-1851
Author, poet, philosopher portraits of important figures in colonial New England, particularly men and women of the middle class.
1837. "The American Scholar".
1841 The Transcendentalist
1844. Essays: Second Series.
1856. Representative Men; on Plato, Swedenborg, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Napoleon, and Goethe.
'1856. English Traits.
1860. The Conduct of Life
1862. "Thoreau"; a eulogy for Henry David Thoreau.Ralph Waldo EmersonBorn: 25-May-1803 Died: 27-Apr-1882
Author, critic, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, abolitionist, tax resister and philosopher.
Walden, a reflection upon simple living amongst nature
Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civic government as moral opposition to an unjust law.
Philosophy had tremendous influence on leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.Henry David ThoreauBorn: 12-Jul-1817 Died: 6-May-1862
19th century American novelist and short story writer. abolitionist, tax resister and philosopher.
Key figure in the development of American literature.
The House of the Seven Gables
Neighbors included Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.Nathaniel HawthorneBorn: 4-Jul-1804 Died: 19-May-1864
American novelist, essayist and poet. abolitionist, tax resister and philosopher.
Moby-Dick is Melville's most famous work and is often considered one of the greatest American novels. It was dedicated to his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne.Herman MelvilleBorn: 1-Aug-1819 Died: 28-Sep-1891
American poet abolitionist, tax resister and philosopher.
The Song of Hiawatha, Paul Revere's Ride, A Psalm of Life and Evangeline.
Member of a group of poets known as the Fireside Poets: Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., who were the first American poets whose popularity rivaled that of British poetsHenry Wadsworth LongfellowBorn: 27-Feb-1807 Died: 24-Mar-1882
Poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist, and considered one of America's best and most influential poets.
Leaves of Grass
The book did not attract the attention of the reading public until a letter from Ralph Waldo Emerson to the poet, in which the volume was characterized as the "most extraordinary piece of wit and wisdom that America has yet contributed", was published in the New York Tribune.Walt WhitmanBorn: 31-May-1819 Died: 26-Mar-1892
American novelist. of America's best and most influential poets.
Best known for the novel Little Women, which she wrote in 1868.
Moved to Boston with her family in 1844, where her father established an experimental school and joined the Transcendentalist Club with Emerson and ThoreauLouisa May AlcottBorn: 29-Nov-1832(in Germantown, PA) Died: 6-Mar-1888
Poet, short story writer, editor, and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of the macabre.
Was one of the early American practitioners of the short story and a progenitor of detective fiction and crime fiction.
His poem "The Raven" appeared in the Evening Mirror and became a popular sensation.Edgar Allan PoeBorn: 19-Jan-1809 Died: 7-Oct-1849
American showman the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of the macabre.
Best remembered for founding the circus that eventually became Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus.P. T. Barnum(Phineas T. Barnum)Born: 5-Jul-1810 Died: 7-Apr-1891