The Ferment of Reform and Culture. 1790 to 1860. Religious liberalism:. Secular rationalism Deism – (Jefferson, Franklin, and Paine) – relied on reason rather than revelation – scientific
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
The Ferment of Reform and Culture
1790 to 1860
Early American "hellfire and brimstone" preacher.
Helped start the Second Great Awakening
Evangelist – spellbinding oratory style
Often called one of "America's foremost revivalist“
Encouraged women to pray
Opposed liquor and slavery
Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons)
Voted as a unit
Second prophet of the Latter Day Saints.
Led followers to Utah
Utah grew and became prosperous
Theocracy – cooperative commonwealth
Advocated for public education
basis of quality education is good teachers
Wanted longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, expanded curriculum
Pushed for reform in mental institutions and called for the end of slavery.
Known as "the father of the American common school“ - to serve individuals of all social classes and religions.
Early textbook writer -- “Schoolmaster of the Republic”
Standardized the American language
Text for most schools from 1836-1900
Contained religious messages
Sought to instill morality, patriotism, and idealism
122,000,000 copies sold
Women's rights advocate
1821 founded the first women's school of higher education, the Troy Female Seminary.
Troy became famous, offering collegiate education to women and new opportunity to women teachers.
President of the National Woman Suffrage Association from 1865-90
Drafted the Declaration of Sentiments (Demanded the vote at Seneca Falls)
Co –organized Seneca Falls
Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony
Prominent women's rights advocate
In 1869, she and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Woman's Suffrage Association (NWSA)
Arrested and fined for trying to vote in the 1872 Presidential election
Abolitionist and women's rights activist
1849 she became the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States.Barred from practice in most hospitals, she founded her own infirmary, the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children, in 1857.
Friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson and associated with transcendentalism
Edited the transcendentalist journal, The Dial from 1840 to 1842
Joined Horace Greeley's New York Tribune as literary critic
First female journalist to work on the staff of a major newspaper.
Fuller's major work, Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), argued for the independence of women.
New Moral World
Owen's envisioned successor of New Harmony. Owenites
fired bricks to build it, but construction never took place.
American utopian socialist. He founded the Oneida Community in 1848.
There were smaller communities in Wallingford, Conn.; Newark, NJ; Putney,Vt; and Cambridge, Vt.
The Oneida Community dissolved in 1880,
He painted, catalogued, and described the birds of North America.
Published Birds of America, in 1838.
American Presbyterian minister
Early advocate of dietary reform
Vegetarianism and temperance movement
1829 - invented Graham flour and Graham bread, made from unsifted and unbolted flour and free from chemical additives
Used to make graham crackers and other products.
The Hudson River School of Art
The Hudson River School used a Romantic approach to depict scenes of America's wilderness, drawing inspiration from the Hudson River Valley, the Catskills, the Berkshires and the newly opened West.
Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty and Asher B. Durand were among the early practitioners of this style and they had a significant influence on the artists that followed them.
Thomas Cole was a teenager when his family emigrated from England. He was a passionate devotee of the scenery of his adopted country. Cole is considered to be the finest American landscape artist of the 19th Century.
1825 to 1875 was a time of powerful national pride in the United States. The dramatic and uniquely American landscapes by Thomas Cole prompted a positive response from the American public. Inspiration and spectacular natural beauty are reflected in the famous paintings, Niagara by Frederic Edwin Church, and Yellowstone Falls by Albert Bierstadt.
Thomas Doughty was one of the first American painters to restrict himself to landscape painting as his genre. Some consider him the catalyst for the Hudson River School given he was the one who recognized early on the magnificent subject matter offered within the American countryside.
Asher B. Durand's early career was as an engraver. When he began to paint it was as first a portraitist before turning his attention to nature. Cole was a major inspiration upon him.
The Hudson River School looked into the conflict between modernity and nature as well as the effects of increasing industrialization and westward expansion.
Portrait of George Washington for the White House, 1797. This is the painting that Dolley Madison rescued when the White House was burned during the War of 1812
George Washington (a.k.a.: the "Athenaeum Head;" ca. 1798; Stuart copy of [unfinished] 1796 original),
American artist of the colonial period, famous for his portraits of important figures in colonial New England, particularly men and women of the middle class.
His portraits were innovative in that they tended to portray their subjects with artifacts that were indicative of their lives.
Portrait of Copley by Gilbert Stuart.
Portrait of the Copley family, 1776
Portrait of Samuel Adams
Portrait of Paul Revere
Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, known by European settlers as "Leatherstocking," andby the Native Americans as "Pathfinder," "Deerslayer," or "Hawkeye".
Best known of the series is The Last of the Mohicans
Author, poet, philosopher
1837. "The American Scholar".
1841 The Transcendentalist
1844. Essays: Second Series.
1856. Representative Men; on Plato, Swedenborg, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Napoleon, and Goethe.
'1856. English Traits.
1860. The Conduct of Life
1862. "Thoreau"; a eulogy for Henry David Thoreau.
Author, critic, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, abolitionist, tax resister and philosopher.
Walden, a reflection upon simple living amongst nature
Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civic government as moral opposition to an unjust law.
Philosophy had tremendous influence on leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
19th century American novelist and short story writer.
Key figure in the development of American literature.
The House of the Seven Gables
Neighbors included Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.
American novelist, essayist and poet.
Moby-Dick is Melville's most famous work and is often considered one of the greatest American novels. It was dedicated to his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne.
The Song of Hiawatha, Paul Revere's Ride, A Psalm of Life and Evangeline.
Member of a group of poets known as the Fireside Poets: Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., who were the first American poets whose popularity rivaled that of British poets
Poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist, and considered one of America's best and most influential poets.
Leaves of Grass
The book did not attract the attention of the reading public until a letter from Ralph Waldo Emerson to the poet, in which the volume was characterized as the "most extraordinary piece of wit and wisdom that America has yet contributed", was published in the New York Tribune.
Best known for the novel Little Women, which she wrote in 1868.
Moved to Boston with her family in 1844, where her father established an experimental school and joined the Transcendentalist Club with Emerson and Thoreau
Poet, short story writer, editor, and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of the macabre.
Was one of the early American practitioners of the short story and a progenitor of detective fiction and crime fiction.
His poem "The Raven" appeared in the Evening Mirror and became a popular sensation.
Best remembered for founding the circus that eventually became Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus.