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Status of the LINAC2 project. Cristina Vaccarezza on behalf of the SPARC-X team. The SPARC-X team.

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Status of the linac2 project

Status of the LINAC2 project

Cristina Vaccarezza

on behalf of the SPARC-X team


The sparc x team
The SPARC-X team

D.Alesini, S.Bertolucci, M. Bellaveglia, M.E.Biagini, R.Boni, M.Boscolo, M.Castellano, A.Clozza, G.Di Pirro, A.Drago, A.Esposito, M.Ferrario, L.Ficcadenti, D. Filippetto, V.Fusco, A.Gallo, G. Gatti, A.Ghigo, S.Guiducci, M.Migliorati, A.Mostacci, L.Palumbo, L.Pellegrino, M.Preger, C.Sanelli, M.Serio, F.Sgamma, B.Spataro, A.Stella, F.Tazzioli, C.Vaccarezza, M.Vescovi, C.Vicario, INFN-Frascati

F.Alessandria, A.Bacci, F.Broggi, S.Cialdi, C. DeMartinis, D. Giove, C.Maroli, M.Mauri, V.Petrillo, M.Romè, L.Serafini, INFN-Milano

M.Mattioli, P. Musumeci, M. Petracca, INFN-Roma1

L.Catani, E.Chiadroni, A. Cianchi, C. Schaerf, INFN-Roma2

F.Ciocci, G.Dattoli, A.Doria, F.Flora, G.P.Gallerano, L.Giannessi, E.Giovenale, G.Messina, P.L.Ottaviani, G. Parisi, L.Picardi, M.Quattromini, A.Renieri, C. Ronsivalle, ENEA-Frascati

J.B. Rosenzweig, S. Reiche, UCLA , Los Angeles, CA, USA

D. Dowell, P. Krejcik, P. Emma, SLAC, Stanford, CA, USA


Outline
Outline

  • LINAC2 project goal

  • SPARXINO proposal & scientific case

  • General layout, Operating scenario

  • Preliminary cost estimate

  • Beam Dynamics & FEL simulation results

  • Summary


Project goal

  • energy upgrade:

    1.5 GeV e-- 1 GeV e+

  • 2 GeV option for e-

    (X-band acc. sections)

Project Goal

  • High brightness beam injector for SASE and seeded FEL experiments (SPARX project)

  • High Energy

    Beam Test Facility



Italian initiatives
Italian Initiatives

a) Feb 2001: Call for proposals- 7.5 M€ for R&D

SPARC (CNR-ENEA-INFN-INFM-S.Trieste-U.Roma2)

b) Dec 2001: Call for proposals- 67 M€ for a

X-ray FEL source

1) SPARX (CNR-ENEA-INFN-Univ.Roma2)

2) FERMI (INFM-Sincrotrone Trieste)


From the sparx proposal
From the SPARX proposal:

“X-rays are presently utilized in many research and application fields, for :

High peak brightness and short pulse duration (few femtoseconds) will be the main characteristics of the SPARX source.

By using a 2.5 GeV linear electron accelerator and two magnetic undulators it will be possible to emit radiation at 10 nm and 1.5 nm. Exploitation of 3rd and 5th harmonics will allow emission in the range between 10 and 2 nm for the first beam line and between 1.5 and 0.3 nm for the second beam line.”

  • Atomic, molecular and cluster physics

  • Plasma and warm dense matter

  • Condensed matter physics

  • Material science

  • Femtosecond chemistry

  • Life science

  • Single Biological molecules and clusters

  • Imaging/holography

  • Micro and nano lithography


The final decision of the Research Ministry was to support two strategic programs:

FERMI

A VUV-FEL user facility at 40-100 nm

SPARX

An R&D program for a X-ray FEL test facility at 3-10 nm


The sparx ino opportunity

I = 2.5 kA two strategic programs:

K = 3

se = 0.03 %

en=4

lcr

[nm]

en=1

Energy [GeV]

I = 1 kA

K = 3

se = 0.1 %

en=4

lcr

[nm]

en=1

Energy [GeV]

TheSPARX-ino opportunity


Sparx ino proposal
SPARX- two strategic programs:ino proposal:

  • upgrade the DAFNE Linac to drive a 3-10 nm SASE-FEL

  • beam energy : 1.2 - 1.5 GeV

  • upgrade the injector to a RF photo-injector (SPARC-like)

  • Study group is preparing a proposal within 2005


Brilliance of x ray radiation sources
Brilliance of X-ray radiation sources two strategic programs:

12.4

1.24

0.124

l (nm)

FEL Covering from the VUV to

the 1 Å X-ray spectral range:

new Research Frontiers

SPARX


Scientific case
Scientific two strategic programs:case

  • “Time resolved X-ray microscopy”, D. Pelliccia, CNR-INFN

  • “Image reconstruction of non periodic nanostructured objects using coherent X-ray diffraction (CXD)” , G. Campi, CNR-IC

  • “Proprietà ottiche del “mezzo vuoto” a corte lunghezze d’onda” G.Cantatore Uni-TS

  • “Low energy X-rays QED tests”, M. MilottiUni-UD

  • and more onRadiation Transport, Diagnostics, Beam Handling, Detectors and Ultrashort Radiation Pulses

FOR MORE INFO...

http://www.lnf.infn.it/conference/sparx05/


Objectives

F. Bonfigli two strategic programs:et al, SPARX workshop, LNF 9-10 May 2005

…objectives:

  • Input from the workshop:

    Wavelength range as close as possible to the water window (~ 2.5 – 4.5 nm)

… and to the carbon window

  • Flexible design:

    SASE & Seeded configurations

    • Improve coherence length

    • Short pulses (fs range)

    • Increase wavelength operation range


Schematic layout 1 2 gev basic
Schematic layout: two strategic programs:1.2 GeV (basic)

E= .150 GeV

E= .490 GeV

E= 1.2 GeV

SPARC

f= -22°

R56= 26÷32 mm

DL

BC

L0

L1

L2

X-band

X-band

sz~ 210mm

sz~ 50÷90 mm

sd < 1 E-3


The da f ne linac
The DA two strategic programs:FNE LINAC

The main LINAC components are the following :

  • Thermionic gun

  • Prebuncher and buncher at f=2.856GHz.

  • High current TW LINAC with output energy  250 MeV

  • Positron converter

  • Capture section

  • Low current e+e- TW LINAC with output energy  510 MeV.


The da f ne complex
The DA two strategic programs:FNE complex


Linac1 low energy section

RF two strategic programs:

gun

Linac1: Low Energy section


Linac2 high energy section

E two strategic programs:tot ~ w 4 S-band :

1.5 GeVe-,1GeVe+

Now : Etot ~ 1.2 GeV

Etot ~ w 3 X-band 2 GeV e-

Linac2: High energy section

dogleg start


Operating scenario
Operating Scenario two strategic programs:

Sparxino @ 1.5 GeV &:

  • e+ 510MeV w damping (+ accumulator)

    • Dafne data taking

    • Dafne high energy w ramping

    • Dafne high luminosity w time sharing

  • e+ 1 GeV

    • BTF experiments

    • on energy in Dafne2 with new injection system


  • High energy dogleg 3d model
    High energy two strategic programs:dogleg 3D model


    Sparxino 1 2 gev s band

    Preliminary cost estimation two strategic programs:

    1/3

    SPARXino – 1.2 GeV S-Band

    1 new waveguide system (M€ 0.4)

    1 X-band station (M€ 1)

    1 SPARC clone (M€ 5)

    750 MeV

    1 magnetic chicane (M€ 0.6)

    480 MeV

    4 new S-band stations (M€ 2.8)

    Estimated cost:

    M€ (4.8 + 15% + 5) = 10.5M€ +7M€ (buildings & plants upgrade)

    > 1100 MeV


    Sparxino 1 5 gev s band

    Preliminary cost estimation two strategic programs:

    150

    SPARXino – 1.5 GeV S-Band

    2/3

    1 new waveguide system (M€ 0.5)

    1 X-band station (M€ 1)

    1 SPARC clone (M€ 5)

    750

    300

    1 compressore (M€ 0.6)

    4 new acc. sections (M€ 0.7)

    Estimated cost

    M€ (7.0 + 15% + 5) = 13 M€ +7M€ (buildings & plants upgrade)

    6 new stations (M€ 4.2)


    Sparxino 1 8 gev s x band

    Preliminary cost estimation two strategic programs:

    SPARXino – 1.8 GeV S+X Band

    3/3

    750

    600

    480 MeV

    > 1800 MeV


    Beam dynamics
    Beam Dynamics two strategic programs:

    • Working point analysis

    • Invariant envelope matching principle

    • Jitter sensitivity and optimization

    • Microbunching instability


    Beam optics
    Beam optics two strategic programs:

    dogleg

    to the undulator

    mag. compressor

    SPARC

    matching

    line

    old Linac


    Two possible working points a i pk av 450a w x band at gun exit

    Parmela simulation Np=50k two strategic programs:

    Two possible working points:a) Ipkav 450A w X-band at gun exit

    photoinjector

    exit

    Ipk-av 450A

    final beam

    Ipk-av 1.1 kA


    Two possible working points b i pk av 300a wo x band at gun exit
    Two possible working points: two strategic programs:b) Ipkav 300A wo X-band at gun exit

    photoinjector

    exit

    Ipk-av 300A

    final beam

    Ipk-av 1.4 kA


    l two strategic programs:= 4 nm

    l= 5 nm

    l= 3 nm


    High energy scenario e 1 5 gev
    High energy scenario E two strategic programs:~1.5 GeV

    Sparxino0x

    High Energy

    l= 3 nm


    Laser pulse jitter i pk av 450 a

    Df two strategic programs:= -1°

    Laser pulse jitter Ipk-av ~450 A

    reference

    Df= +1°


    Laser pulse jitter i pk av 450 a1

    Df two strategic programs:= -1°

    Laser pulse jitter Ipk-av ~450 A

    reference

    Df= +1°


    Laser pulse jitter i pk av 300 a

    Df two strategic programs:= -1°

    Laser pulse jitter Ipk-av ~300 A

    reference

    Df= +1°


    Laser pulse jitter i pk av 300 a1

    Df two strategic programs:= -1°

    Laser pulse jitter Ipk-av ~300 A

    reference

    Df= +1°



    From elegant with n p 2m from the photoinjector exit up to undulator entrance
    from Elegant with N two strategic programs:p=2M from the photoinjector exit up to undulator entrance

    lf =9 mm, Af= 1 %

    no modulation


    From elegant with n p 2m from the photoinjector exit up to undulator entrance1
    from Elegant with N two strategic programs:p=2M from the photoinjector exit up to undulator entrance

    lf =15 mm, Af= 30 %

    l0 =5 mm, A0= 5 %


    In detail
    in detail: two strategic programs:

    lf =15 mm, Af= 30. %

    lf =9 mm, Af= 1 %

    lf =25 mm, Af= 11 %


    Summary table
    Summary table two strategic programs:


    About a laser heater
    about a laser heater… two strategic programs:

    • to increase uncorrelated energy spread

      and….

    • Fast (slice length determined by laser pulse length) control on the longitudinal electron phase space

    • Convert energy modulation into density modulation. Enhanced SASE. (Ref. Zholents Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 040701, 2005)

    • Attosecond radiation with a few optical cycle-laser slicing technique (Ref. Zholents and Fawley, PRL 92, 224801, 2004)

    • Short current spike at the bunch tail to study superradiance regime (Ref. Giannessi, Musumeci, Spampinati, Journal of Applied Physics, 98, 043110 (2005))

    • Weak FEL detection with a modulated laser-based beam heater (Ref. Emma et al. PAC 2005)


    Fel radiation analysis
    FEL radiation analysis two strategic programs:


    E beam @ the um
    e-beam @ the UM two strategic programs:

    • Beam energy 1.2 GeV

    • Flat longitudinal current profile ~ 1kA

    • Pulse Duration ~ 300μm ~ 1 ps

    • Slice energy spread < 2 10-4

    • Slice emittances < 1 mm-mrad


    Resonance condition two strategic programs:

    1.5 GeV

    1.5 kA

    1.0 GeV

    1.0 kA

    SPARC Undulator 2.8 cm period

    Reference: Beam Energy 1.2 GeV

    Peak Current 1 kA

    Slice energy spread < 2 10-4

    Slice emittance < 1 mm-mrad

    Tuning range 3.5 – 15 nm

    Low Energy : 1.0GeV & 1.0kA

    High Energy : 1.5GeV & 1.5kA

    SPARC Undulator

    λUM=2.8 cm – KMAX~ 2.5

    Wavelength tuning range - 15 – 4 nm


    Sase performances simulations made with genesis 1 3 perseo for the high order harmonics

    3° harmonic two strategic programs:

    data

    SASE – PerformancesSimulations made with GENESIS 1.3 + Perseo for the high order harmonics

    SASE PULSE (4.5nm – 33m)


    Spectrum

    Peak brilliance [Phot./(s mrad two strategic programs:2 mm2 0.1% bw)]

    0.1% λ

    Spectrum

    SASE Spectrum @ 4.5 nm – 33m


    Seeding to increase longitudinal coherence hhg in ar monochromator

    λ two strategic programs:~ 30 nm

    Ef =ηmEi~ 0.6 nJ

    Pf~ 3 kW

    cδtf~ 60 μm

    Ar

    λ~ 30 nm

    E ~ 0.4 μJ

    P ~ 8 MW

    δt ~ 50 fs ~ 6 μm

    Monochromator

    ηm = 0.08 x 0.5 x 0.25 x δti/δtf

    UM1

    λu= 4.2 cm

    K = 3.89

    5 UM

    48 periods each

    λres ~ 30 nm

    Seeding to increase longitudinal coherence: HHG in Ar+Monochromator

    X 6 (X8)

    UM2 (SPARC)

    λu= 2.8 cm

    K = 1.51

    6 UM

    77 periods each

    λres ~ 5 nm (3.75 nm)


    Hhg in ar monochromator cont
    HHG two strategic programs: in Ar + monochromator cont.

    5 nm

    Energy per pulse ~ 100 μJ

    N phot. ~ 2x1012

    Coherence length ~45 μm

    5 nm

    3.75 nm

    Energy per pulse ~ 10 μJ

    N phot. ~ 1x1011

    Coherence length ~30 μm

    5 nm


    Summary
    SUMMARY two strategic programs:

    • LINAC upgrade layout proposed w a preliminary cost estimate

    • Photoinjector Beam Dynamics studies:

      • 2 stable w.p. considered

      • Jitter sensitivity analysis & optimization

      • Microbunching instability study

  • NEXT:

    • Prototypes realization

    • Tests at SPARC on techniques and systems for SPARXINO

    • Components and installation


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