Altruism among kin vs non kin effects of cost of help and reciprocal exchange
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 13

Altruism Among Kin vs. Non-kin: Effects of Cost of Help and Reciprocal Exchange PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 121 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Altruism Among Kin vs. Non-kin: Effects of Cost of Help and Reciprocal Exchange. By: Esmeralda Arrizón-Palomera, Elena Rodriguez, and Alexa Tangalakis. Video Clip: Gorilla Saves Kid. Hamilton’s Kin Selection Theory (KST). Higher levels of altruism is associated with greater relatedness

Download Presentation

Altruism Among Kin vs. Non-kin: Effects of Cost of Help and Reciprocal Exchange

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Altruism among kin vs non kin effects of cost of help and reciprocal exchange

Altruism Among Kin vs. Non-kin: Effects of Cost of Help and Reciprocal Exchange

By: Esmeralda Arrizón-Palomera,

Elena Rodriguez, and Alexa Tangalakis


Video clip gorilla saves kid

Video Clip: Gorilla Saves Kid


Hamilton s kin selection theory kst

Hamilton’s Kin Selection Theory (KST)

  • Higher levels of altruism is associated with greater relatedness

  • Problems with KST

    • Unable to explain data on human altruism

      • Unrelated acquaintances receive less help than kin, but do receive some help

      • Certain categories of non-kin are exceptions to the general rule that humans tend to help kin more than nonkin

      • Friends often receive as much or even more help than kin


Present study purpose

Present Study & Purpose

The study explored some of the ways in which the findings can be reconciled with KST.

  • Costs of Helping

    • Hypothesis 1: As the cost of helping increases, the share of help given to kin will increase, and the share given to nonkin will decrease.

  • Levels of Reciprocal Exchange: KST in tandem Triver’s Altruism Theory (RAT)

    • Hypothesis 2: The association between help given and help received will be larger for acquaintances than for friends, and larger for friends than for siblings or cousins.


Method procedures

Method & Procedures

  • Participants

  • Materials

    • Recruitment: online

    • Received Credit for Participation

    • Completed a booklet of questionnaires titled “Understanding Behavior”

  • Procedure

    • one of eight conditions based on

      • sex of the target

      • the relationship

  • Word Meaning Task

    • had to choose which one of the synonyms was closest to the original word.

  • Social Relationships

    • demographic data

    • items related to altruism and were representative of three categories of help: low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost help

  • Other Variables


Results

Results

  • Help Given as a Function of Relationship Category and Cost of Help

    • Hypothesis 1 Findings

    • Hypothesis 2 Findings


Explanations limitations and conclusion

Explanations, Limitations, and Conclusion

Explanations

  • Emotional closeness is an evolved psychological disposition that helps to mediate the link between relatedness and altruism.

  • Communal Relationships

  • Exchange Relationships

  • Cultural Norms

    Limitations

  • Weakness in measurement strategy

    • Assessment of level of reciprocity

    • Comparison between actual helping and hypothetical helping

      Conclusion

  • The results constitute good support for an inclusive fitness approach to explain altruism among humans


Critique weaknesses

Critique: Weaknesses

  • Recruitment

  • Testing

  • Actual Helping vs. Hypothetical Helping


Interesting points

Interesting Points

  • low-cost help, people helped friends more than siblings

  • Even though young adults report that they are emotionally closer to friends than to siblings, participants were more willing to provide high-cost help to siblings


Test questions multiple choice

Test Questions: Multiple Choice

1. One of the ways in which this study attempts to reconcile the findings about human altruism with Kin Selection Theory is by considering:

A. The proximity to the target individual

B. Cultural norms

C. Age difference

D. Cost of Help

2. According to the article, the category of nonkin that is an exception to the rule that people help kin more than nonkin is:

A. AcquaintancesB. Friends C. ClassmatesD. Co-workers

3. The results indicate that ________

A. The degree of reciprocity among friends is higher than that among siblings or

cousins.

B. The degree of reciprocity among siblings is higher than that of friends.

C. The degree of reciprocity among friends was no higher than that among.

siblings or cousins.

D. The degree of reciprocity among cousins was not higher than that of siblings.


True or false

True or False

4. According to the article, Kin Selection Theory is able to explain all of the data on human altruism.

A. TrueB. False

5. According to the article, greater relatedness is associated with higher levels of altruism.

A. TrueB. False

6. According to Stewart-Williams, the cost-help finding is a product of cultural norms.

A. TrueB. False


Answer key

Answer Key:

1. D-Cost of Help

2. B-Friends

3. C-The degree of reciprocity among friends was no higher than that among siblings or cousins.

4. B-False

5. A-True

6. B-False


Reference

Reference

Stewart-Williams, Steve (2007). Altruism among kin vs. nonkin: effects of cost of help and reciprocal exchange. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 193-198.


  • Login