The Civil War. Ch 11 Notes. Remember…. Confederate capital: Richmond, VA Border States: MD, MO, KY, DE All slave states DE had the fewest, stayed with the Union MD had more but stayed with Union even with much pro-Confederate support
Ch 11 Notes
More railroad mileage
More people to serve in the military and work in the factories
Established government with a strong federal gov
Better military leadership
Better military training
Home-field advantageStrengths of Both Sides
“Anaconda Plan”: surround enemy and squeeze it to death
Naval blockade of the southern coastline
Take control of the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in 2
Capture Richmond, the Confederate capital
War of attrition
Battle to wear down the enemy
Gain a foreign ally (especially hoped for Britain)
Wait and defend their territoryStrategies
All lined up to march into battle
Concentrate forces, assault a position and drive enemy away
Cannons and muskets (not very accurate)
Long time to re-load weapons
Guerilla warfare (surprise attacks)
Bullet shaped ammo not musket balls
Fighting from further away from enemy
Rifling used on inside of gun barrels
Heavy artillery with rifled barrels, shells, and canisterTactics and Technology
Devastation and a New Freedom
The Confederate capital at Richmond, VA has a new feeling about its streets.
Many cities set fire by Union troops, but the Confederates set Richmond ablaze on their own.
African Americans welcome the arriving Union army with open arms.
Confederates hope to hold defenses until Union election in November of 1864
Feel that another president may replace Lincoln and grant independence to the south.
Lincoln puts Grant in charge of the Union army and brings him east to fight Lee
Gen. William Sherman is placed in the west
Both plan to beat the Confederates through greater population and industry.
Grant plans to charge directly to Richmond, knowing that Lee will have to fight to defend the capital
2 Day battle that begins on May 5th
This is Lee’s first attempt to stop Grant’s march.
Fought in the same location as the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Fought in a dense forest…… The woods caught on fire!!!!
Confusion occurs because of this
Longstreet is shot only a short distance from where Jackson was shot the year before
Grant loses many men but refuses to retreat
He marches around the Confederates and continues towards Richmond
May 8th - Spotsylvania
Confederates catch up to the Union forces and a 2 week battle follows.
Grant suffers major casualties again but still follows his route to Richmond. Ensures Lincoln he will continue to fight.
June 3rd – Cold Harbor
Grant mounts two attacks and again loses many troops. This time 7,000.
A railroad center south of Richmond.
Supplied food to the city.
Grant’s attack fails and in two months he has lost 65,000 more of his troops.
So many men died that some had pinned their name/address on their uniform so they could be identified.
June 18th, 1864 Grant opts for siege tactics.
Lee has trouble replacing casualties and tries to defend until the November election in the Union.
Grant sends General Phil Sheridan to attack and destroy all transportation routes and crops.
One home burned belonged to a relative of Robert E. Lee; Henrietta Lee.
This marks the beginning of Grant’s utter devastation of the South.
Same tactics as Grant with Atlanta as his goal.
General Joseph Johnston would defend in the same way as Lee.
Johnston was replaced by General James Hood who Jefferson Davis thought would be more aggressive
A series of battles results in their retreat to Atlanta and Gen Sherman lays siege to Atlanta.
Confederate army flees the city in early September.
Plans to march to capture Savannah.
Torches the city of Atlanta before leaving
Causes complete destruction for 300 miles.
Destroys bridges, factories, railroads, livestock, crops and even homes.
Arrives in Savannah and the Confederates have already fled. Easily takes the city.
Lincoln (Rep.) runs with Andrew Johnson
Johnson was a Pro Union Southerner
Lincoln faces trouble for his pocket Veto of the Wade – Davis Bill……. Union Party.
Ran against Gen. McClellan - Democrat
Thought his chances were good because he had support from some troops.
Promised to negotiate an end to war
Lincoln wins easily after Union capture of Atlanta
February 1865 – Lincoln and Congress pass the Thirteenth Amendment.
Became a law on December 18th
The law ended slavery in the United States permanently.
It becomes apparent that the war is nearly over.
Sherman marches from Savannah to SC
SC was seen as the basis for Confederate belief because it was the 1st state to secede.
Even more brutal than he was in Georgia.
Burns nearly all houses in his path
Burns half of Columbia, the state capital, to the ground
Stops the destruction of civilian property upon entering North Carolina.
Lee tries to reunite with Johnston to combine forces, but is cut off and retreats to the small town of Appomattox, Virginia.
Lee knows the war is over despite suggestions to begin guerilla warfare.
Lee and Grant meet in the house of Wilmer McLean.
Terms of Surrender in order to make it surrender.
Lee and Grant talked peacefully and then exchanged plans for the surrender.
Troops could return home with their horses.
Would not be punished as traitors.
Grant offered to feed the Confederate troops.
Grant orders no celebration in the Union army because the southerners were “our countrymen again”
Surrender met with mixed feelings in the south.
Gen. Johnston surrenders to Sherman in NC a few weeks later
Confederate surrender continues throughout the month
Shot at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. by John Wilkes Booth
Lincoln dies early the next morning after nothing could be done for him.
Booth is found in a barn hiding, the barn is burned and shot at, killing him.
A Tragic loss, but what was gained by the war?