Computational modeling of cognitive activity
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Computational Modeling of Cognitive Activity. Prof. Larry M. Manevitz Course Slides: 2012. Aim of Course: To view some of the methods and results of Cognitive and Brain Modeling What is it good for? What does it replace?

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Computational Modeling of Cognitive Activity

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Computational modeling of cognitive activity

Computational Modeling of Cognitive Activity

Prof. Larry M. Manevitz

Course Slides: 2012


Computational modeling of cognitive activity

  • Aim of Course: To view some of the methods and results of Cognitive and Brain Modeling

    • What is it good for?

    • What does it replace?

  • Aim of Course: To understand how machine learning methods could help understand cognition and Brain Function


Some cognitive tasks

Some Cognitive Tasks

  • Memory

    • Declarative

    • Procedural

    • Associative

  • Decision Making

  • Pattern Identification

  • Language

  • Speech

  • Reading


Computational modeling of cognitive activity

  • What is the brain?

  • What is cognition?

    • We can think of brain activity as a computation.

    • Can we do “reverse engineering”?

    • Can we explain activity?

  • Many approaches

    • Physiological Explanations

    • Computational Explanations

    • Cognitive Explanations


Related fields related methods

Related Fields, Related Methods?

  • Neurophysiology

    • Cell Structure

    • System Biology

  • Cognitive Psychology

    • Psychophysical Experiments

  • Important Tools

    • fMRI

    • EEG

    • Others …


Computational modeling of cognitive activity

  • We have several tools from CS that can help us

    • Successfully model cognitive activity

    • Successfully explore activity in vivo (i.e. in a person…)


What tools are appropriate

What tools are appropriate?


Basic structure of neural system

Basic Structure of Neural System

  • From work of Cajal (as opposed to Golgi), the neural system is separated into discrete cells.

  • So we need to understand at least

    • Computational aspect of separate cells

    • Computational aspect of network of cells


Computational modeling of cognitive activity

  • Let’s start with the simplest model.

  • The neural system is known to be cellular.

    That means there is not continuous connections (like an electric wire) but discrete elements.


Examples of neurons

Examples of Neurons


Neuron stains

Neuron Stains


Computational modeling of cognitive activity

  • Let’s start in 1948. McCullough Pitts. Want to understand how the brain works.

  • Their view: all there is, is Boolean functions.

  • Note: Same view as logicians as old as Boole (1898)


Definitions and history

Definitions and History

  • McCullough –Pitts Neuron

  • Perceptron

  • Adaline

  • Linear Separability

  • Multi-Level Neurons

  • Neurons with Loops

L. Manevitz U. Haifa


Natural versus artificial neuron

Natural versus Artificial Neuron

  • Natural NeuronMcCullough Pitts Neuron

L. Manevitz U. Haifa


Sample feed forward network no loops

Sample Feed forward Network (No loops)

Weights

Output

Weights

Weights

Input

Wji

Vik

F(S wji xj

L. Manevitz U. Haifa


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