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Chapter 7 Waking and Sleeping Rhythms. Waking Consciousness. Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments. Sleep and Dreams. Biological Rhythms periodic physiological fluctuations Circadian Rhythm the biological clock

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Chapter 7

Waking and Sleeping Rhythms

waking consciousness
Waking Consciousness
  • Consciousness
    • our awareness of ourselves and our environments
sleep and dreams
Sleep and Dreams
  • Biological Rhythms
    • periodic physiological fluctuations
  • Circadian Rhythm
    • the biological clock
    • regular bodily rhythms, such as of wakefulness and body temperature, that occur on a 24-hour cycle
premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual Syndrome

3

Recalled mood is

worse than

earlier reported

Negative mood

score

2

1

Premenstrual Menstrual Intermenstrual

Menstrual phase

Recalled mood

Actual

sleep and dreams1
Sleep and Dreams
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
    • recurring sleep stage
    • vivid dreams
    • “paradoxical sleep”
      • muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
  • Sleep
    • periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
sleep and dreams2
Sleep and Dreams
  • Measuring sleep activity
brain waves and sleep stages
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Alpha Waves
    • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
  • Delta Waves
    • large, slow waves of deep sleep
  • Hallucinations
    • false sensory experiences
stages in a typical night s sleep

Awake

Sleep

stages

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
stages in a typical night s sleep1

Minutes

of

Stage 4 and

REM

Decreasing

Stage 4

25

20

15

Increasing

REM

10

5

0

1

2

5

6

7

8

3

4

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
  • Effects of Sleep Loss
    • fatigue
    • impaired concentration
    • depressed immune system
    • greater vulnerability to accidents
sleep deprivation1

Accident

frequency

More sleep,

fewer accidents

Less sleep,

more accidents

2,800

2,700

4,200

2,600

4000

2,500

3,800

2,400

3,600

Spring time change

(hour sleep loss)

Fall time change

(hour sleep gained)

Monday before time change

Monday after time change

Sleep Deprivation
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
    • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  • Narcolepsy
    • uncontrollable sleep attacks
  • Sleep Apnea
    • temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
    • momentary reawakenings
night terrors and nightmares

Sleep

stages

Awake

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Night Terrors and Nightmares
  • Night Terrors
    • occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4
    • high arousal-- appearance of being terrified
    • seldom remembered
dreams freud
Dreams: Freud
  • Dreams
    • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
    • hallucinatory imagery
    • discontinuities
    • incongruities
    • delusional acceptance of the content
    • difficulties remembering
dreams freud1
Dreams: Freud
  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    • wish fulfillment
    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • Manifest Content
    • remembered story line
  • Latent Content
    • underlying meaning
dreams
Dreams
  • As Information Processing
    • helps facilitate memories
  • As a Physiological Function
    • periodic brain stimulation
  • REM Rebound
    • REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
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