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Chapter 34 Intro to Animals. Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html. Animals. Invertebrates (animals without a backbone). Porifera Cnidaria Worms Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods. Animals. Vertebrates- Animals with backbones. Fish Amphibians Reptiles

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chapter 34 intro to animals
Chapter 34Intro to Animals

Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html

animals
Animals

Invertebrates

(animals without a backbone)

PoriferaCnidaria

Worms

Mollusks

EchinodermsArthropods

animals1
Animals

Vertebrates-

Animals

with backbones

FishAmphibians

Reptiles

BirdsMammals

animal groups
Animal Groups

Image from: http://ology.amnh.org/biodiversity/treeoflife/pages/graph.html

characteristics of all animals
Characteristics of ALL Animals:

EUKARYOTES

  • Are ____________________

cells have nucleus & membrane bound organelles

2. Are ____________________

get food from consuming other organisms

3. Are ____________________

made of many cells

4. Show __________________

different kinds of cells do different jobs

HETEROTROPHIC

MULTICELLULAR

SPECIALIZATION

characteristics of all animals1
Characteristics of ALL Animals:

MOVE

5. _____________ (at some point in life cycle)

for food, find mates, escape danger

  • Contain _____________

which carries the genetic code

7. ____________________

Make offspring

Most have sexual reproduction (few asexual)

DNA

REPRODUCE

10 body systems
10 Body Systems :

INTEGUMENTARY

1. _____________________

OUTSIDE BODY COVERING (fur, skin, scales, feathers)

Covers and protects, ID,prevents heat & water loss

Orangutan image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php

Fish image from:http://www.woodburning.com/fish/

Frog image from: http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~mmorley/rainbow/green%20frog.jpg

Cardinal image from: http://www.nps.gov/fopu/pulaskione/GRAPHIC/IMAGES/birds/Northern%20Cardinal.jpg

10 body systems1
10 Body Systems :

DIGESTIVE

2. _________________

Breaks down food to

obtain nutrients & gets rid of undigested waste

Image from: http://infozone.imcpl.org/kids_diges.htm

slide10

Images from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif

Only one opening: FOOD IN and WASTE OUT through same opening

slide11

Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif

Two openings:

FOOD IN at one end (mouth) WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS)

slide12

Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif

Two openings: Most efficient

If food flows only one direction it allows for organ specialization

(Different parts can start to do different jobs)

10 body systems2
10 Body Systems :

CIRCULATORY

3. __________________

Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells

Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste away from cells

Circulatory fluid can be:

inside blood vessels = _________ loose inside body spaces = _______

CLOSED

OPEN

Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147a.gif

10 body systems3
10 Body Systems :

RESPIRATORY

  • Exchange gases with the
  • environment
    • take in oxygen
    • get rid of waste gases (CO2 &/or ammonia)

4. ___________________

Image from: http://www.umm.edu/respiratory/images/respiratory_anatomy.gif

10 body systems4
10 Body Systems :

5. ___________________

  • Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells
  • Help with HOMEOSTASIS by maintaining water/ion balance

(_________________________)

EXCRETORY

OSMOREGULATION

nitrogen waste
NITROGEN WASTE :

AMMONIA

_________________ Most TOXIC Must be removed QUICKLY Needs MOST water to dilute

_________________ Made from ammonia by liver Less toxic than ammonia Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia)

_________________ LEAST TOXIC

Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute)

UREA

URIC ACID

nitrogen waste1

http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPGhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

NITROGEN WASTE
all waste is not the same
ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME!

made by cells from break down of proteins

left over from undigested food

Handled by digestive system

Handled by

excretory system

Feces (poop)

ammonia, urea, or uric acid

10 body systems5
10 Body Systems :

SKELETAL

6. ___________________

Framework to support body/protection

Skeleton on inside = _______________ Skeleton on outside = _______________

ENDOSKELETON

EXOSKELETON

Walking skeleton image from: http://virtualastronaut.jsc.nasa.gov/textonly/act15/text-skeletonpuz.html

Insect lefg image from:http://www.zoobooks.com/newFrontPage/animals/virtualZoo/animals/i/insects/images/exoskeleton.gif

10 body systems6

Image from: http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/muscles_noSW.html

10 Body Systems :

MUSCULAR

7. _______________

Locomotion- move body itself

OR

move substances through body (EX: food through digestive system; blood through vessels)

http://www.angliacampus.com/public/sec/science/nutriton/images/peristal.gif

10 body systems7
10 Body Systems :

REPRODUCTIVE

8. _____________________ - Produce offspring by combining genetic material from 2 parents = __________________________

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Produce offspring using genetic material from only 1 parent =_____________________________

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm

10 body systems8
10 Body Systems :

INDIRECT

______________ DEVELOPMENT immature LARVA looks different than adult

__________ DEVELOPMENT young are smaller versions on adults

Metamorphosis image from: http://www.lincoln.midcoast.com/~del/butterfly

Frog image from: http://www.animationlibrary.co

DIRECT

Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG

slide23
Sperm and egg join

outside female’s body = ___________________

Sperm and egg join

inside female’s body = ____________________

External fertilization

Internal fertilization

Animation from: http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/fertilization/support.gif

slide24

9. ___________________

Receive sensory infoabout environment &

send response signals

NERVOUS

http://www.roadhunter.com/~ceph/gallery/anatomy07.jpg

slide25

ENDOCRINE

10. __________________

Make hormones that regulate other body systems

(only in higher animals)

Image from: http://www.cushings-help.com/images/endocrine.jpg

kinds of symmetry
Kinds of Symmetry

No symmetry

Radial symmetry

Bilateral symmetry

no symmetry

ASYMMETRY

___________________No symmetry

Doesn’t matter how you cut it; you never get 2 identical halves.

Image from: http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/animals/sponges.htm

symmetry

Radial

_______ Symmetry

Jelly fish image: http://www.redfishbluefish.com/BellaLuz/Jellyfish.jpg

Get 2 identical halves in several directions.

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm

Image from: http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/

symmetry1

Bilateral

___________ Symmetry

If divide animal down the middle you get 2 mirror images

BUT only divides equally in ONE direction

Image from: http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Animals/Symmetry.htm

3 embryology
3. EMBRYOLOGY

Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml

  • Where does BLASTOPORE end up?
  • What do embryos look like as they divide?
  • When do cells decide what they will be?
slide31

EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

Becomes digestive system

 Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm

slide32

Where does BLASTOPORE end up?

 Images modified from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm

what do embryos look like as they divide
What do embryos look like as they divide?

SPIRAL

RADIAL

CLEAVAGE CLEAVAGE

Images from:

http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif

when do cells decide what they will become
When do cells decide what they will become?

Image from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg

slide35

Cells decide early

Cells decide later

Removing cell OK

Removing cell causes death

DETERMINATE

INDETERMINATE

Images modified from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg

animals2
ANIMALS

DEUTEROSTOMES

PROTOSTOMES

Blastopore becomes ANUS

Blastopore becomes MOUTH

Decide later(INDETERMINATE)

Decide very early (DETERMINATE)

RADIAL cleavage

SPIRAL cleavage

ALL VERTEBRATES (Fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals)plus ECHINODERMS

ALL INVERTEBRATESexcept ECHINODERMS

embryology
EMBRYOLOGY

Echinoderms

__________________

are the “exception to the rule”!

They are INVERTEBRATES but their embryos act like

_________________________

DEUTEROSTOMES

Image from: http://www.bsac21.freeserve.co.uk/images/Critters/Starfish%20Bloody%20Henry.JPG

slide39

EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

Becomes digestive system

 Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm

all animals except sponges jellyfish anemones have 3 germ layers in their embryos
All animals except sponges, jellyfish, anemones have 3 germ layers in their embryos

Digestive system, respiratory

Endoderm

Mesoderm

Ectoderm

Muscle, excretory, bones,

circulatory

Outer skin, brain, nervous system

types of coeloms see lums
Types of Coeloms (See-Lums)

No cavity (space) around organs

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm

ACOELOM = “without space”

types of coeloms see lums1
Types of Coeloms (See-Lums)

Space around organs but only lined with mesoderm on one side (lines body wall BUT NOT around gut)

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm

PSEUDOCOELOM

kinds of coeloms see lums
Kinds of Coeloms (See-Lums)

EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space) lined on BOTH sides by mesoderm

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm

EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM

eucoelomates
EUCOELOMATES

ALL VERTEBRATES & SOME INVERTEBRATES

ALL ANIMALS you will dissect this year are EUCOELOMATES!

3 types of coeloms
3 Types of Coeloms

ACOELOM

EUCOELOM

PSEUDOCOELOM

ectoderm

mesoderm

endoderm

Image from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg

advantages of having a coelom body space
Advantages of having a COELOM (body space):

Provides space for internal organs

In animals without a skeleton- Fluid in coelom space can act as a HYDROSTATIC skeleton

In animals without blood vessels- Fluid in coelom space can circulate nutrients and oxygen to cells

why is a eucoelom the best
WHY is a EUCOELOM the best?

Digestive organ muscles and body wall muscles come from MESODERM in different places so organism can digest food and move at same time.

Images from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg

http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Images/Animal_Images/coelomate.gif

which way is up
Which way is up?

DORSAL (top)

ANTERIORhead end

POSTERIOR tail end

VENTRAL (underneath)

Image from: http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif

slide51

CEPHALIZATION

________________

Concentration of nervous tissue and sensory organsin anterior end of an organism (head area)

south dakota core science standards
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.

south dakota core science standards1
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major taxa. (APPLICATION)

  • Kingdoms

Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera

  • Phyla

Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants

south dakota core science standards2
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.3. Students are able to identify structures and function relationships within major

south dakota advanced science standards
SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS

9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes

sources
SOURCES

Anemone from: http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/animals/cnidaria.gif

Crab from: http://www.gifs.net

Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif

 Clam from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm

Ant from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk

slide58

Millipede from:

http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/key/images/invertebrates/millipede.jpg

Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net

Jellyfish from: http://www.aloha.com/~lifeguards/jellie75.jpg

slide59

Tree frog: http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg

Turtle: http://www.50birds.com/images/endttboxturtle.jpg

Bird: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm

Fish from: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif

Orangutan: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php

slide60

Earthworm : http://www.york.ac.uk/org/ciec/CaringfortheEnvironment.29.

4.03/Exxon/Food%20Chain%20images/ExxonPicsLarge/Earthworms.jpg

Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net

Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif

Crab from: http://www.animation-station.com/fish/index.php?page=2

slide61

All images on this page from: http://www.seaworld.org/AnimalBytes/animal_bytes.html

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