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ENV 510 Air Pollution and Risk Assessment. By K.Subramaniam , PJK MSc(Envt); BSc(Hons)(Envt&Occ.Health); Dip.RSH(London). ELEMENTS OF AIR POLLUTION. Composition of the atmosphere Sources of air pollution Scales of air pollution Effects of air pollution. COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

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Env 510 air pollution and risk assessment

ENV 510Air Pollution and Risk Assessment

By

K.Subramaniam, PJK

MSc(Envt); BSc(Hons)(Envt&Occ.Health); Dip.RSH(London).


Elements of air pollution
ELEMENTS OF AIR POLLUTION

  • Composition of the atmosphere

  • Sources of air pollution

  • Scales of air pollution

  • Effects of air pollution



Residence time of gases in the atmosphere
RESIDENCE TIME OF GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

  • Group 1: Quasi permanent

  • Group 2: Variable

  • Group 3: Very variable


Group 1 quasi permanent
GROUP 1: QUASI PERMANENT

  • > 10,000 – 10 million years

  • N2, O2, Ar, Ne, He, Kr, Xe


Group 2 variable
GROUP 2: VARIABLE

  • Few years

  • CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O

  • Chlorofluorocarbons


Group 3 very variable
GROUP 3: VERY VARIABLE

  • Few days to month

  • O3, NO3, NO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, H2S


Air pollution
AIR POLLUTION

  • Defined as the presence of undesirable materials in air, in quantities large enough to produce effects (harmful or otherwise).


Sources of air pollution
SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION

  • Natural

  • Anthropogenic


Natural sources
Natural Sources

  • Volcanoes

  • Forest fires

  • Dust storms

  • Sea surface


Pollutants natural
Pollutants (Natural)

  • Particulate matter

  • Sulphur dioxide

  • Nitrogen oxides

  • Methane

  • Hydrogen sulphide


Anthropogenic sources
Anthropogenic Sources

  • Stationary

  • Mobile


Anthropogenic sources1
Anthropogenic Sources

  • Industrial sources

  • Utilities

  • Individuals

  • Agriculture


Pollutants anthropogenic
Pollutants (Anthropogenic)

  • Particulate matter

  • Sulphur dioxide

  • Nitrogen oxides

  • Methane

  • Hydrogen sulphide

  • Heavy metals

  • CFC, Halons, etc.


Sources of airborne pollution are many: home cooking, power generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning …


Each year we add more than 30 billion tons of generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning carbon dioxide to the air mainly by:a). Burning fossil fuels b). Cutting down and burning trees Each year we add 350 to 500 million tons of methane to the air mainly by:i. Raising livestock ii. Coal mining and drilling for oil and natural gas iii. Rice cultivation iv. Disposing of garbage in landfills v. Burning forests and fields


Size &Sources of Particles (PM) generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

„Nanoparticles“

Ultrafine

Fine, PM 2.5

Natural Processes

Combustion

Particles

Gas-Particle

Conversion

Sea salt, Mineral dust

0.1 nm 1 nm 10 nm 100 nm 1 mm 10 mm 100 mm

.

.

.

Atoms

Molecules

Coarse, PM 10

Clouds


Aerosol source strength estimate
AEROSOL SOURCE STRENGTH (Estimate) generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning


Scales of air pollution
SCALES OF AIR POLLUTION generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Defined by these four parameters

    • Horizon

    • Vertical Height

    • Time

    • Organization


Scales five
Scales (five) generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Local

  • Urban

  • Regional

  • Continental

  • Global


I local
i. Local generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Streets

  • Height of buildings

  • Hours

  • Local council


Ii urban
ii. Urban generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • < 100 km

  • Boundary layer

  • Days

  • State level


Iii regional
iii. Regional generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • > 100 km, 1000km

  • Troposphere

  • Weeks to month

  • National / Regional


Iv continental
iv. Continental generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Continents

  • Stratosphere

  • Months to year

  • Regional / International


V global
v. Global generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Whole globe

  • Whole atmosphere

  • Years / decades

  • International (UN, WMO, WHO)


A variety of scales need to be considered

Air Quality Analysis generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

Public

Impact

Regional

Prediction

Global

Assimilation

Satellite

Products

A Variety of Scales Need to Be Considered

Requires Close Integration of Observations and Models


Effects of air pollution
Effects of Air Pollution generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Human health and welfare

  • Biosphere (fauna & flora)

  • Material & Structures

  • Atmosphere

  • Soil

  • Water bodies


Human health and welfare
Human health and welfare generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Acute

  • Chronic

  • Respiratory

  • Ingestion

  • Surface


EFFECTS OF AEROSOL ON HEALTH generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

ULTRAFINE PARTICLES SMALLER THAN LUMIN DIAMETER HAVE HIGHER POTENTIAL TO PENETRATE INTO THE LUNG AND CAUSE INFLAMATION.

SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN THE SIZE RANGE BELOW 10µM CAN INCREASE THE NUMBER OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES.

HEALTH IMPACTS OF AEROSOL CONSIST OF BOTH SHORT TERM ACUTE SYMPTOMS LIKE ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS etc.

LONG TERM CHRONIC IRRITATION AND INFLAMATION OF RESPIRATORY TRACK, DEVELOPMENT OF LUNG CANCER.


Fauna flora
Fauna & Flora generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Fauna – commercial animals

  • Yield

  • Growth

  • Forest

  • Cash crop


Material structures
Material & Structures generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Metal corrosion

  • Stone decay

  • Fabric and dyes

  • Rubber / plastics

  • Paint / paper / leather


Impacts of acid rain generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning


Soil and water bodies
Soil and Water Bodies generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Leaching

  • Contamination


Atmosphere
Atmosphere generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Visibility

  • Stability

  • Composition

  • Weather

  • Climate


Impact on visibility
IMPACT ON VISIBILITY generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning


Impact of pm 2 5 on visibility
Impact of PM generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning 2.5 on Visibility

PM2.5< 10 ug/m3 (8/16/00)

PM2.5 = 15 ug/m3 (8/7/00)

PM2.5 = 20 ug/m3 (8/24/00)

PM2.5 = 25 ug/m3 (8/25/00)

PM2.5 = 30 ug/m3 (8/15/00)

PM2.5 = 35 ug/m3 (8/26/00)


EFFECT OF AEROSOL ON CLIMATE generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

CHANGING OF AEROSOLS IN THE ATMOSPHERE CAN CHANGE THE FREQUENCY OF CLOUD OCCURRENCE, AND RAINFALL AMOUNTS.

WITHOUT AEROSOLS IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO START THE FORMATION OF CLOUD DROPLETS.


IMPACTS OF AEROSOLS ON CLIMATE generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

AEROSOLS TEND TO CAUSE COOLING OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE IMMEDIATELY BELOW THEM.

MOST AEROSOLS REFLECT SUNLIGHT BACK INTO SPACE, REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF SOLAR RADIATION THAT REACHES THE SURFACE.

THE AEROSOL COOLING MAY PARTIALLY OFFSET EXPECTED GLOBAL WARMING THAT IS ATTRIBUTED TO INCREASES IN THE AMOUNT OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM HUMAN ACTIVITY.


Pollutants that cause global warming
Pollutants that cause Global Warming generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

CO2

BC

CH4

N2O

dust

OC

O3

SO4

NOx

SO2

NMVOC


Elements of air pollution1
Elements of Air Pollution generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

  • Definition

  • Source

  • Scales

  • Effects

  • General knowledge


API Status Indicator generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning

http://www.doe.gov.my/


Ambient air data and monitoring
Ambient Air Data And Monitoring generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning


Introduction
Introduction generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning


  • In 1989, the Department of Environment (DOE) formulated Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMG) for air pollutants, defining the concentration limits of selected air pollutants which might adversely affect the health and welfare of the general public.

  • Based on the MG, DOE later developed its first air quality index system, known as the Malaysian Air Quality Index (MAQI) in 1993.


  • An index system has an important role in conveying to both decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.

  • Application of the index system, particularly in industrialised countries, has demonstrated its useful role in providing a sound basis for both the effective management of air quality, as well as the effective protection of public health.

  • In line with the need for regional harmonisation and for easy comparison with countries in the region, the Department revised its index system in 1996, and the Pollutant Index (API) was adopted.

  • The API system of Malaysia closely follows the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) system of the United States.


Industrial emission and open burning
Industrial Emission and Open Burning decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.

How does air pollution occur?

  • Air pollution occurs when air impurities in the form of gaseous or particles are emitted into the atmosphere.

  • It is important to recognize that air pollution is not a single entity but an alphabet soup of foregoing materials mixed with the normal constituents of air.

  • Air pollutant comes from a variety of natural and man-made sources.


Industrial emission and open burning1
Industrial Emission and Open Burning decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.

  • Man made sources include emission from industrial activities, emissions from motor vehicles and burning of fossil fuels and biomass.

  • Environmental issues relating to industrial emissions and open burning activities will be discussed in detail.


Impacts of decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.

Air Pollution

Climate Change

Acid Rain

Visibility and

Ecosystem

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

Human Health

(Risk)

Water Quality

Eutrophication

Air Toxics


Risk assessment

Risk Assessment decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.


Risk controls

Risk Controls decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.


Integrated l i f t approach
INTEGRATED L.I.F.T APPROACH decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.

  • LEGISLATION

  • INSTITUTIONAL

  • FINANCIAL

  • TECHNOLOGY


Plan of action
PLAN OF ACTION decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.

  • SHORT TERM PLANNING

  • LONG TERM PLANNING


Conclusion
CONCLUSION decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.

  • INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, FINANCIAL

    AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES ARE

    ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS THAT NEED TO BE

    ADDRESSED SERIOUSLY IN ORDER TO

    TACKLE THE PROBLEM OF AIR POLLUTION

    IN THE LONG RUN.

  • HOWEVER, THIS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED

    THROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE AND

    EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION

    PLAN.


Thank you
Thank you decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.


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