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ITU-T Workshop on Delivering Good Quality Telecommunication Service in a Safe Environment in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, 26 July – 27 July 2010 ). Kenya’s Experience in the Measurement of EMF. James Chumba, Senior Radiation Protection Officer, Radiation Protection Board - Kenya. Contents.

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kenya s experience in the measurement of emf

ITU-T Workshop on Delivering Good Quality Telecommunication Service in a Safe Environment in Africa(Nairobi, Kenya, 26 July – 27 July 2010 )

Kenya’s Experience in the Measurement of EMF

James Chumba,

Senior Radiation Protection Officer,

Radiation Protection Board - Kenya

  • Radiation Protection Board
  • Memorandum of Understanding with CCK (MoU)
  • Technical Working Committee (TWC)
  • NIR Installations
  • Inspections
  • Effects of EMF
  • Way forward
radiation protection board
Radiation Protection Board
  • National competent authority, established by Parliament on matters of radiation protections services, security of radioactive and nuclear materials, control of consumer goods and the environment, contaminated with radioactivity, radioactive waste management, emerging issues in telecommunication radiation exposure to the population, and the actual registration and licensing of radiation facilities and workers as defined in the Act
  • Regulates Ionizing Radiation.
radiation protection board1
Radiation Protection Board
  • The increased presence of mobile systems and devices has raised public interest in possible health issues associated with exposure to electromagnetic emissions.
  • People are concerned about possible harmful emissions from mobile phone handsets and base stations.
  • Desirable that Non Ionizing Radiation (NIR) evaluation be undertaken on Radio frequency stations that radiate high power especially when such stations are located near residential areas, commercial areas with large populations or even areas that are routinely accessible to the public.
  • Initiative by the Board and CCK to educate the public while carrying out a thorough evaluation of existing infrastructure to ensure their safety
  • Kenya has neither standards for RF exposure nor an enforcing agency for such standards
  • Signed on 19th January, 2009.
  • Established joint collaborative efforts between CCK and RPB on measurement and monitoring of radiofrequency radiation exposure at communications facilities
technical working committee twc
Technical Working Committee (TWC)
  • Initially had representation from both Parties, but other Regulatory bodies have been incorporated
  • Has the below ToRs:
    • Develop and periodically review work plans for approval by the parties.
    • Identify resources required to undertake activities under these terms of reference
    • Propose a budget based on the activities of the committee.
tors continuation
ToRs (continuation)
  • Propose sources of funds.
  • Implement the work plan which includes but not limited to carrying out measurements and inspection of communication and other NIR facilities in Kenya.
  • Develop processes and procedures for inspections.
  • Develop appropriate templates and documentation required for all processes
  • Submit inspection reports to the parties in accordance with the MoU.
  • Identify training requirements for the appropriate personnel
  • Advise the parties on emerging NIR technologies
nir installations

Wireless infrastructure such as base stations, relay stations and support systems such as power supplies

  • Mobile telephony has been critical in boosting access to telecommunications in Africa and has helped substantially lift numbers of telecommunications users.
  • Mobile operators have rolled out quite extensively in Kenya raising concerns by the members of the Public on the safety of these installations - BTS’s
  • Industry players have developed a Code of practice for the deployment of communications Infrastructure in Kenya, currently in force
NIR Installations
  • Objective of a survey is to determine whether the device or installation complies with recommended standards of performance and personnel exposure,
  • Assess the effect of the location of the device with respect to controlled and uncontrolled areas in the environment.
  • Common meters used
    • Narda Radiation Hazard Meter (RAHAM, 3MHz to 18Ghz),
  • Spectran Spectrum analyzer.This meter was mainly utilized for carrying out both spatial and time averaged measurements within the given frequency range. Has a HyperLOG antenna model 7060 with a frequency range 30 MHz to 6 GHz.
  • For every site, data collected include physical location, antenna type, radiation pattern, tilt, height above ground, azimuth and coordinates and digital photos
  • All measurements are expressed in milli-watts per square meter (mW/m²) and compared with the ICINRP limits
effects of emf
Effects of EMF
  • The RF energy is a non-ionizing radiation like the visible light, infrared radiation and other forms of electromagnetic radiation with relatively low frequencies. Do not have sufficient energy to ionize biological material like other types of electromagnetic radiation
  • The only proven biological effects from exposure to RF energy result from heating of tissue by RF energy and are often referred to as "thermal" effects.
  • Exposure to very high levels of RF radiation can be harmful due rapid heating of biological tissue and the body\'s inability to cope with or dissipate the excessive heat that is generated.
way forward
Way forward
  • Regulatory -The Radiation Act, being revised to incorporate NIR issues,
  • Sensitive all stakeholders on the already developed Code,
  • Continue with the NIR measurement exercise