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Ecology PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ecology. By Ashley Olsen. What is ecology?. Ecology is t he study of the relationship between the environment and living organism T heir interactions . What are individual organisms?. Individual organisms are the smallest unit that an ecologist would concern themselves with.

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By Ashley Olsen

What is ecology?

  • Ecology is the study of the relationship between the environment and living organism

  • Their interactions

What are individual organisms?

  • Individual organisms are the smallest unit that an ecologist would concern themselves with

What are species?

  • Species are the same organisms (as a group) that live in the same location at the same time.

  • They are capable of breeding and producing fertile young

What are populations?

  • Agroup of species

  • They may or may not interact with one another

  • These populations make up a community

What are communities?

  • They are a group of all the populations interacting with each other

What are ecosystems?

  • Ecosystems are a group of habitats

  • When you put different habitats together, you get ecosystems

What is a biosphere?

  • A biosphere is all of the places on Earth and where the atmosphere/oceans/caves etc. where life exists

What is a habitat?

  • A habitat is where all of the biotic interact with the abiotic features

What are abiotic factors?

  • Abiotic factors are non-living factors in the environment

What is the First Tropic Level/ Producers in the food pyramid?

  • The first level is equal to something taking a step up in the pyramid

  • There is the most energy that comes from the sun

What is the Second Tropic Level/ Primary Consumers in the food pyramid?

  • The second level is the first level of consumers

  • A consumer = a heterotroph

  • Herbivores

What is the Third Tropic Level/Secondary Consumers in the food pyramid?

  • A heterotroph

  • Carnivores and/ or omnivores

  • Consume the primary consumers and maybe the producers

What is the Fourth Tropic Level/Tertiary Consumer in the food pyramid?

  • The top of the pyramid

  • Third level consumer but its on the fourth level

  • Carnivores or omnivores that consume primary consumer and things below them

What is the Fifth Tropic Level/Quandary Consumer

  • The Fifth Tropic level is when you rarely get a Fourth level consumer

  • This level doesn’t have enough energy to supply them

  • In this level there is .1 calories of energy

What is the Flow of Energy in a Tropic Level?

  • A you go down in the pyramid, the amount of food required for you to consume gets larger and larger

  • It is impossible to supply if there are large quantities at the top of the pyramid

What is the difference between a food pyramid and a food web?

  • Food Pyramid: It may talk about different types of animals and plants or it may talk about one type.

  • Food Web: It talks about many types of animals and plants

What is a decomposer?

  • A decomposer is an organism that breaks down dead animals and recycles the material back into the environment

What is an autotroph (photosynthesis)?

  • An autotroph is an organism that is capable of making its own food

  • Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight = Glucose + Oxygen

What is a heterotroph?

  • A heterotroph is an organism that is not able to make it’s own food and it gets its nutrients from other sources

What is an herbivore?

  • An herbivore is an organism that only eats plants

What is a carnivore?

  • A carnivore is an organism that only eats meat

What is an omnivore?

  • An omnivore is a organism that eats both meats and plants; eats everything

What is a saprobe?

  • A saprobe is a form of decomposers, like bacteria, that help to recycle materials back into the environment

What is a scavenger?

  • A scavenger is something that can eat dead things

What is carry capacity?

  • This is the amount of individuals in a species that an amount of land can support

What are limiting factors?

  • Limiting factors have access to resources.

  • These resources are food, water, shelter and money

What is density dependent?

  • Food is density dependent

    • The more people you have, the less food you will have

  • They are all affected by population

What is density independent?

  • Density independent is when everyone is equally affected no matter how many individuals there are

What is the competition between and among species?

  • Between – food, shelter and water

  • Within the same species – food, shelter, water and mates

What is symbiosis?

  • Symbiosis is the way two or more organisms interact with each other

What is competition?

  • Competition is an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another.

What is mutualism?

  • Mutualism has an equal relationship

  • Both organisms benefit from this, no organisms are harmed

What is parasitism?

  • Parasitism is when one animal benefits (the parasite) and one organism is harmed (the host)

  • They do not want to kill the host, they want to make it as sick as possible

  • If the host dies, the parasite will most likely die

What is commensalism?

  • Commensalism is when one organism benefits and the other organism neither benefits nor harmed

What is the predator/prey?

  • A predator is the one who hunts

  • The prey is the one that is hunted

  • The predator population lags behind the prey in numbers

  • The prey population is lower

What is amensalism?

  • Amensalism is when One organism benefits and completely destroys/kills the other organism

What is the J-curve?

  • Tend to be small

  • To produce a lot of young

  • They reach sexual maturity at an early age

  • They have little or no parental evolvement

  • This is affected by the environment

What is the S-curve?

  • Tend to be large

  • Produce only a few young

  • Reach sexual maturity later

  • They have a lot of parental care

  • The environment is a very important factor in their life

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