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Institute of Education Sciences Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools. Recommendation 8 Include motivational strategies in Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions. Level of Evidence: Low.

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recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

Institute of Education Sciences

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for

Elementary and Middle Schools

Recommendation 8Include motivational strategies in Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions.

Level of Evidence: Low

slide2
Tier 2 and Tier interventions should include components that promote:

• student effort

• persistence

• achievement

slide3

Research to Support the Recommendation

In the opinion of the panel, studies which

included motivational strategies in the

interventions did not show that a motivational

component is essential, but do suggest that it

may be useful for improving mathematics

achievement.

slide4

Research to Support the Recommendation

Graphing student progress and

setting goals

suggests positive effects

  • One experimental study used student graphing and goal setting as independent variables and found substantively important positive effects.
  • In other studies graphing and setting goals were part of multidimensional intervention studies that showed positive effects.
slide6
Reinforce or praise students for their effort and for attending to and being engaged in the lesson (engagement-contingent rewards).
    • Reinforcement should be immediate and specific to highlight student effort and engagement.
      • It is ineffective to give empty praise such as “good job” or “keep up the good work” that is not related to actual effort.
      • Praise is most effective when it points to specific progress that students are making and actual effort.
slide7
Consider rewarding student accomplishments.
    • Consider using rewards to acknowledge completion of math tasks (completion-contingent rewards) and accurate work (performance contingent rewards).
    • Praise should be specific rather than generic.
    • Consider notifying the student’s parents to inform them of their child’s successes in math.
slide8
Allow students to chart their progress and to set goals for improvement.
    • Goal setting help students develop self-regulated learning.
concerns considerations
Concerns & Considerations
  • Some are concerned rewards can reduce genuine interest in mathematics by directing student attention to gathering rewards rather than learning math.
    • Research in other content areas has demonstrated that rewards and praise increase the likelihood of students’ academic success without diminishing their interest in learning.
    • As students learn and succeed, interventionists can gradually fade the use of rewards because student success will become an intrinsic reward.
concerns considerations1
Concerns & Considerations
  • Some teachers may be concerned that providing feedback and rewarding achievement detracts from classroom instructional time.
    • Verbally praising students for their effort individually and engagement in small group lessons requires very little time.
    • Awarding points or token for correct responses can be done when the teacher grades the student’s work.
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