Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions
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Institute of Education Sciences Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools. Recommendation 8 Include motivational strategies in Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions. Level of Evidence: Low.

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Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

Institute of Education Sciences

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for

Elementary and Middle Schools

Recommendation 8Include motivational strategies in Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions.

Level of Evidence: Low


Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

Tier 2 and Tier interventions should include components that promote:

• student effort

• persistence

• achievement


Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

Research to Support the Recommendation

In the opinion of the panel, studies which

included motivational strategies in the

interventions did not show that a motivational

component is essential, but do suggest that it

may be useful for improving mathematics

achievement.


Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

Research to Support the Recommendation

Graphing student progress and

setting goals

suggests positive effects

  • One experimental study used student graphing and goal setting as independent variables and found substantively important positive effects.

  • In other studies graphing and setting goals were part of multidimensional intervention studies that showed positive effects.


Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

How to Carry Out the Recommendations


Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

  • Reinforce or praise students for their effort and for attending to and being engaged in the lesson (engagement-contingent rewards).

    • Reinforcement should be immediate and specific to highlight student effort and engagement.

      • It is ineffective to give empty praise such as “good job” or “keep up the good work” that is not related to actual effort.

      • Praise is most effective when it points to specific progress that students are making and actual effort.


Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

  • Consider rewarding student accomplishments.

    • Consider using rewards to acknowledge completion of math tasks (completion-contingent rewards) and accurate work (performance contingent rewards).

    • Praise should be specific rather than generic.

    • Consider notifying the student’s parents to inform them of their child’s successes in math.


Recommendation 8 include motivational strategies in tier 2 and tier 3 interventions

  • Allow students to chart their progress and to set goals for improvement.

    • Goal setting help students develop self-regulated learning.


Concerns considerations

Concerns & Considerations

  • Some are concerned rewards can reduce genuine interest in mathematics by directing student attention to gathering rewards rather than learning math.

    • Research in other content areas has demonstrated that rewards and praise increase the likelihood of students’ academic success without diminishing their interest in learning.

    • As students learn and succeed, interventionists can gradually fade the use of rewards because student success will become an intrinsic reward.


Concerns considerations1

Concerns & Considerations

  • Some teachers may be concerned that providing feedback and rewarding achievement detracts from classroom instructional time.

    • Verbally praising students for their effort individually and engagement in small group lessons requires very little time.

    • Awarding points or token for correct responses can be done when the teacher grades the student’s work.


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