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OH. POLIFENOLI. OH. B. HO. O. A. C. OH. OH. O. Il ruolo dei polifenoli nelle piante. I polifenoli sono metaboliti secondari che svolgono principalmente funzioni di difesa della pianta Le azioni sono svariate: Schermo e protezione contro gli UV Azione antiossidante

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Polifenoli

OH

POLIFENOLI

OH

B

HO

O

A

C

OH

OH

O


Polifenoli

  • Il ruolo dei polifenoli nelle piante

  • I polifenoli sono metaboliti secondari che svolgono principalmente funzioni di difesa della pianta

  • Le azioni sono svariate:

  • Schermo e protezione contro gli UV

  • Azione antiossidante

  • Protezione dai patogeni

  • Funzione di rigenerazione tissutale/cicatrizzazione

  • Protezione da alcune specie di erbivori

  • Pigmenti colorati per attrarre impollinatori

  • I livelli di polifenoli nelle piante riflettono queste dinamiche


Polifenoli

OH

FENOLO

  • >100,000 varietà di molecole

  • Classificati secondo la strutturachimica

  • acidi

  • partecipanonellereazioni di ossido/riduzione


Polifenoli

Principali polifenoli del mirtillo


Polifenoli

Scarsa biodisponibilità

Buona biodisponibilità

Delphinidin

Maqui

(Aristoteliachilensis)


Polifenoli

  • Azione dei polifenoli sull’uomo

  • Attività sui recettori gustativi

  • Azione sulla flora batterica intestinale

  • Azione pleiotropica su diversi meccanismi di segnale cellulare

  • Azione antiinfiammatoria

  • Aumento delle difese antiossidanti

  • Regolazione metabolismo cellulare


Polifenoli

HO

OH

O

HO

R

1

OR

2

OH

  • Gut microbiota

  • Polyphenols

Microbial proportion

Changes in

adhesion/colonization

  • Production of active metabolites

  • Changes in bioavailability


Polifenoli

I segnali attivati dai polifenoli


Polifenoli

all-protective polyphenols

Polyphenols


Oxidative stress

OXIDATIVE STRESS

An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of the oxidants, leading to a disruption of redox signaling and/or molecular damage.

Sies H, Jones D. Encyclopedia of Stress (2007)


Polifenoli

Proteine

DNA/mRNA

Lipidi

Perdita attività enzimatiche

Danni di membrana

Difetti di trascrizione e traslocazione

Formazione complessi inerti

ROS


Polifenoli

Metabolicreactions of xenobiotics


Polifenoli

The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway


Polifenoli

HO

OH

O

HO

R

1

OR

2

OH

Phase 2 Response

Nrf2/keap1/ARE

Phase 2 Response

Phase 2 Response

Cytoprotection

GSH transferases

multifunctional roles

regeneration

of GSH and

dehydroascorbate

GSH-reductase

catalase

antioxidant

regeneration

of oxidized thioredoxin

and dehydroascorbate

thioredoxin

ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOPROTECTIVE ACTION

Nrf2

-glutamylcysteine synthetase

GSH synthesis

ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSIVE ELEMENT (ARE)

biliverdin/bilirubin

CO

heme oxygenase 1

Fe

ferritin

Keap1

regeneration

of ubiquinol

and tocopherol

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

UDP-glucoronosyltransferases


Polifenoli

Modulation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by food polyphenols: a nutritional neuroprotective strategy for cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders.

Scapagnini G, Vasto S, Abraham NG, Caruso C, Zella D, Galvano F.

Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Oct;44(2):192-201.


Literature review

Literature Review

  • James Joseph (2007-2009)

  • Tested and still testing fruit polyphenols and their effects on aging and the brain

  • Tested effects of bilberries, blackberries, blueberries, and other berry fruits


Polifenoli

Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinski D, Martin A, et al. (1999) Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci 19: 8114–8121.

BickfordPC, Gould T, Briederick L, Chadman K, Pollock A, et al. (2000) Antioxidant-rich diets improve cerebellar physiology and motor learning in aged rats. BrainRes 866: 211–217.

Joseph JA, Denisova NA, Arendash G, Gordon M, Diamond D, et al. (2003) Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer diseasemodel. NutrNeurosci 6: 153–162.

RamassamyC (2006) Emerging role of polyphenolic compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: a review of their intracellular targets. EurJ Pharmacol 545: 51–64. Review.

Lau FC, Bielinski DF, Joseph JA (2007) Inhibitory effects of blueberry extract on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia. J Neurosci Res 85: 1010–1017.

Sweeney MI, Kalt W, MacKinnon SL, Ashby J, Gottschall-Pass KT (2002) Feeding rats diets enriched in lowbush blueberries for six weeks decreases ischemia-inducedbraindamage. NutrNeurosci 5: 427–431.

DuffyKB, Spangler EL, Devan BD, Guo Z, Bowker JL, et al. (2008) A blueberry-enriched diet provides cellular protection against oxidative stress and attenuates a kainate-induced learning impairment in rats. Neurobiol Aging 29: 1680–1689.

Shukitt-HaleB, Lau FC, Carey AN, Galli RL, Spangler EL, et al. (2008) Blueberry polyphenols prevent kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rathippocampus. NutritNeurosci11: 172–182.


Polifenoli

Multi-organ protection by the Nrf2 pathway


Polifenoli

Regulation of inflammatory cytokines through activation of NF-κB


Polifenoli

Azione inibitoria di Nf-κB della Delfinidina

Delphinidin, a dietaryanthocyanidin in pigmentedfruits and vegetables: A new weapon to blunt prostate cancergrowth

BilalBin Hafeez et al. Cell Cycle 2008 November 1; 7(21): 3320–3326.

A DietaryAnthocyanidinDelphinidinInducesApoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells In vitro and In vivo: Involvement of NuclearFactor-κB Signaling

HasanMukhtar et al. Cancer Res. 2008 15; 68(20): 8564–8572.

Anthocyanins and theirrole in cancerprevention

Li-ShuWang, Gary D. Stoner

CancerLett. 2008 8; 269(2): 281–290


Polifenoli

Inflammation

Inflammation

Polyphenols

Oxidative

Stress

Oxidative

Stress

IkB

Keap1

Nrf2

NFkB

Nrf2

NFkB

Defensive Response

Detox enzymes type II

HO-1

Inflammatory Response

Cytokines

NOS

COX

DNA


Polifenoli

polyphenols

polyphenols

Inflammation

Inflammation

Disease


Polifenoli

Howitz KT, Bitterman KJ, Cohen HY, Lamming DW, Lavu S, Wood JG, Zipkin RE, Chung P, Kisielewski A, Zhang LL, Scherer B, Sinclair DA.

Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan.

Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):191-6.

  • Caloric restriction has been proven to extend the lifespan of a number of species, including mammals

  • In yeast, a caloric restriction stimulates the activity of an enzyme referred to as Sir2

  • Administering resveratrol to yeast increased Sir2 activity in the absence of caloric restriction and extended the replicative lifespan of yeast by 70%$


Polifenoli

Calorie Restriction (without nutritional deficiency) extends life in all species tested

Eakin F & Witten M Experimental Gerontology 1995, 30: 33-64

McCay CM et al. J. Nutrition 1935, 10: 63-79


Proposed model of how polyphenols mimics calories restriction

Proposed model of how polyphenols mimics Calories Restriction

Polyphenols

Sun-Jun Park et al., Cell, 148; 421, 2012


Polifenoli

Polyphenols

Sirtuin

activation

AMPK

Apoptosis

FOXO

Insulin

PGC-1α

mitochondrial biogenesis

Neurodegenerative

disorders

Metabolic

diseases

CVD


Mitochondrial biogenesis

PGC-1a

mtTFA

NRF-1 and 2

mtTFA

PGC-1α - peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator

Mitochondrial biogenesis

Nucleus

Mitochondria

?

mtDNA

nDNA

Transcription

Krebs cycle enzymes

Transporters

OXPHOS mRNAs (COXVb)

More than 300 proteins

Replication

Transcription

2 rRNAs (12S rRNA)

13 OXPHOS mRNAs (COXI)


Polifenoli

PGC-1 is the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and also regulates other “slow” genes

Overexpression of PGC-1 did not only affect mitochondrial biogenesis.

The transgenic muscles appear red due to the high myoglobin content (see also the Western blot bottom left. The mitochondrial content is increased as expected (cytochrome C is a marker) and surprisingly also motor proteins such as slow troponin (TnI) and slow myosin are upregulated (Lin et al. 2002).


Polifenoli

Resveratrolinducesmitochondrialbiogenesis in endothelialcells

Csiszar A et al. Am J Physiol Heart CircPhysiol 2009


Polifenoli

Proposed mechanisms by which polyphenols confers mitochondrial protection in aging.

polyphenols


Polifenoli

Literature Review

Fig. 3 Blueberry polyphenols extend lifespan and slow aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Wilson et. al. 2006


Polifenoli

Anthocyanins

Withoutpolyphenols


Polifenoli

Anthocyanins

InduceseNOS


Polifenoli

Effects of Dp-3-g on human thrombus formation under flow.


Polifenoli

Sergio Davinelli1, D Craig Willcox2, Giovanni Scapagnini1*

1 Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy

2 Department of Human Welfare, Okinawa International University, Ginowan, Japan

* Corresponding author

Davinelli et al. Immunity & Ageing 2012


Polifenoli

Okinawa Centenarian Study

  • Dieta ipocalorica

  • Basso consumo di carboidrati complessi

  • Elevato consumo di pesce crudo

  • Elevato consumo di polifenoli

  • Adeguato esercizio fisico


Maqui

Maqui

The Mapuche Indian tribe is the only tribe in American Continents  that were not conquered 

by any European Countries.  According to the Conquistadors the  Mapuche warriors ate very 

little solid food and drink a fermented beverage made from  maqui berry several times a day,

whichmay have contributed to the extraordinary strength and stamina that the  warriors

exhibited.  


Maqui berry aristotelia chilensis

Maqui Berry(Aristoteliachilensis)

  • Maqui is a deeply purpled berry from the Patagonia region, that stretches from Cemtral/Southern Chile to Antarctica, one of the cleanest place on this planet.

  • Extraordinary high concentration of anthocyanins, contain high content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins that exhibits high antioxidant activity.


Maqui has the highest anti oxidant content of any fruit

Maqui has the highest anti-oxidant content of any fruit

  • 2-3 times higher than Acai & Goji berry (currently considered as the highest ORAC value superfruit),

  • more than 3 times higher than mangosteen,

  • 8 –10 times higher than pomegranate,

  • 50 times more than a glass of red wine.


Maqui berry scores the highest in orac anthrocyanins and total phenols

Maqui Berry scores the highest in ORAC, Anthrocyanins and Total Phenols


Review of maqui s benefits

Review of Maqui’s Benefits

  • Highest natural ORAC value

  • Highest anthocyanins (from plants,)

  • Highest Polyphenols (plays a role in the prevention of degenerative diseases) of any known fruit or berry including acai, mangosteen, amalaki and pomegranate

  • Anti-inflammatoryeffects by inhibiting the expression of COX-2, (also modulates NFkaffaB) which plays a role in inflammation

  • Antimicrobial (kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria, fungi or viruses)

  • Analgesic / pain relieving properties

  • Thermogenic properties / raises core body temperature

  • Prohibits LDL oxidation

  • Anti-atherogenic / Helps manage healthy cholesterol & triglyceride levels

  • Stimulates PPAR receptors / regulates cell development


Pharmacological studies maqui berry

Pharmacological studies Maqui Berry

  • In general this species is characterised by the numerous antioxidant substances found in its fruits (Miranda-Rottmann et al. 2002), among them are various flavonoid pigments (anthocyanins), which give the berry its characteristic dark violet colour (Stuntz 1996).

  • Its berries have a higher phenol content and score better for total radical-trapping potential and total antioxidant reactivity in in vitro antioxidant capacity tests, when compared to different commercial berries.

  • Its juice is also effective in inhibiting copper-induced LDL oxidation (oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein LDL, particles is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis, oxidized LDL induces oxidative stress and modifies gene expression in endothelial cells).

  • In human endothelial cell cultures, the addition of juice from A. chilensis was found to protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidative stress.

  • The aqueous, anthocyanin-rich fraction of the juice accounts for most of its antioxidant properties.

  • A. chilensis is a rich source of phenolics with high antioxidant capacity and suggest that it may have antiatherogenic properties (Miranda-Rottmann 2005). Aristoteline has also been identified as a secondary metabolite with antimitotic activity (Cespedes et al. 1990).


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