Islamic Art & Architecture. Faith, Pattern, Geometry. The Kaaba, Mecca. Pilgrims surrounding the Kaaba (dedicated by Mohammed). Kaaba & Islam. Originally held various “pagan” icons Mohammed fled Medina (the hijira) for Mecca and threw out icons from the Kaaba (aniconism)
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Islamic Art & Architecture
Faith, Pattern, Geometry
The Kaaba, Mecca. Pilgrims surrounding the Kaaba (dedicated by Mohammed)
However this varies by region/time frame.. What examples can you think of?
The Spread of Islam in the Middle East and Europe
Four caliphs/followers of Mohammed succeeded --spread into India, Africa, Spain
Arabic was used to study and teach, but also simply to delight the eye
DIVISIONS FROM THIS CONFLICT CONTINUE TODAY….
Where are the Shia’s and Sunnis still fighting TODAY ?????
The Dome of the Rock was the first great monument of Islamic Art.
Of the Rock
The rock was where Mohammed ascended to God, according to Islam
Dome of the Rock, interior
Begun 691 CE, Umayyad
1st great Islamic monument
3rd most holy site in Islam
Built on holy site for Jews & Christians too;
Islamic view : Mohammed completed the prophecies of those faiths
Frieze of Qur’an writings of gold mosaic on turquoise background-oldest written Qur’an verses
Oldest use of Qur’an in architecture
The Dome of the Rock was the first great momument of Islamic Art.
Know & recognize these 3 characteristic arches/niches from Islamic architecture
Muqarnas are unique to Islam
Often stacked and used in multiples, very intricate and dazzling to the eye
Sometimes vault domes, or used as part of a mihrab
SEE EXAMPLES ON NEXT PAGES
Tile Mosaic Mihrab,
from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan
Medium: Glazed and cut tiles
Size: 11'3" X 7'6"
14th century Iran
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
One of finest examples of early architectural ceramic decoration
3 inscriptions: outer in cursive, Qur’an verses about 5 Pillars of Islam.
Inner Kufic sayings of prophet
Center panel: line in Kufic says
“The mosque is the house of every pious person.”
Example of beautiful wood and ivory inlaid Minbar from mosque in Cairo, Egypt (15th Century)
Qibla wall from Sultan Hasan Madrasa-Mausoleum-Mosque
Example of elaborate Qibla (prayer wall) with minbar (pulpit), mihrab (niche)
Dome of Great Mosque of Cordoba, in front of the mihrab
Note intricate mosaics
Islamic interest in mathematics & geometry
Student presentations on Mosque of Cordoba here
Students will discuss this with the class.
Note dome, and minarets
Sultan Selim Mosque
Square base transitioned to central dome with corner half domes
Gigantic hemispheric dome larger than Hagia Sophia
Complex held mosque, madrasa, hospittal, kitchens, market, baths
Central plan with fountain (see plans)
Interior of dome of
Mosque of Sultan Selim Edirne
STUDENTS PRESENT THIS
Four Iwan Mosque plan
Congregational Mosque, Isfahan
Developed in Iran
Iwan = huge, barrel vaulted walls with arch entrances
Qibla is the prayer wall
KNOW THIS VOCABULARY
Great Mosque of Ishafan (Iran)
Note iwan walls with vaulted entrances
Mosaic tile decoration
Four iwan plan
17th century, lots of additions since
Arabic manuscript page
Naskhi (Iran) scripts
Calligraphers enjoyed very high status, included women and princes
20 cursive scripts in use by the 10th century
Qur’an usually wrote on parchment or vellum
Samarkand ceramics had a beautiful white ground like Chinese porcelain.
Border is Kufic script;
Calligraphy often used for decoration as well as text.
Mamluk Glass Oil Lamp, Syria or Egypt, 14th century
Glass, polychrome enamel, gold
Egyptians produced 1st glass in 2nd millenium BCE
13th century CE artistic exchanges in Italy, Syria, Egypt developed new molding and blowing techniques
Used for mosques
Kuranic inscription: God is the light of the heavens.
European heraldry symbols
FLASHCARD - DISCUSS INFLUENCES, FIGURATIVE IMAGERY, ETC.
The Macy Jug
Painted fritware, incised
Now at Metropolitan Museum of Art
Technique to produce lustrous metallic surface on fired ceramic
Painted dense, elaborate patterns of animals, foliage, etc.
Originally FRITWARE used for beads in ancient Egypt
Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa
Silk tapestry weave with gilt parchment
Trophy taken by Christian King Ferdinand III.. Detail of center section
Star Ushak Style
Note patterns which reverse symmetry
Infinite arabesque that repeats in all directions
Qur’an Frontspiece, Cairo Egypt, 1368 CE.
Nonfigural designs from Mamluk Egypt
Intricate designs paralleled
Caliph Harun Al Rashid Visits Turkish Bath
Kamal al Din-Bihzad
From Herart School of Miniature painting in western Afghanistan
Bihzad paintings illustrated Khamsa Five Poems.
Bathhouse accepted from Roman society in Islamic world in Turkey, Jordan.
Another Bihzad miniature
Shirin sees Khusraus Portrait
Tugra of Sultan Suleyman
16th Century, Ottoman Empire
Ink, paint, and gold on paper
Tugras combined the ruler’s name with the phrase Eternally Victorious
Tugras appeared on seals, coints, buildings, edicts
Body design may have been inspired by Chinese ceramics
Recognize Court of the Lions
Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain; 14th Century
City of Gardens .. Islamic palace set in gardens. Complex citadel with dramatic views, miradors (lookout windows). Beautiful ceiling with clustered muqarnas
8 pointed star ceiling (next image)
Muqarnas Dome, hall of the Abencerrajes,
Palace of the Lions, Alhambra