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Introduction To IBM Mainframe Systems. Chapter 1-2 Review. Objectives. Identify Basic Components Of Mainframe Processors Identify Difference In Architecture IBM’s z/Series Processors And Earlier Systems Types Of I/O Devices On Mainframes Define Tracks And Cylinder

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Introduction To IBM Mainframe Systems

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Introduction to ibm mainframe systems l.jpg

Introduction To IBM Mainframe Systems

Chapter 1-2 Review

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Objectives l.jpg

Objectives

  • Identify Basic Components Of Mainframe Processors

  • Identify Difference In Architecture

    • IBM’s z/Series Processors And Earlier Systems

  • Types Of I/O Devices On Mainframes

  • Define Tracks And Cylinder

  • Describe Features Of Mainframe OS:

    • Virtual Storage

    • Multiprogramming

    • Spooling

    • Batch Processing

    • Time Sharing.

  • Describe MVS, OS/390, And Z/Os

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


The basic architecture for ibm mainframe systems l.jpg

Figure 1-01a

The Basic Architecture For IBM Mainframe Systems

  • The z/OS Redbook Shows How It Evolved Into---

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Hardware Terms You Should Know

  • Central processing unit, or CPU

  • Cache

  • Channels (ESCON/FICON channels)

  • I/O devices

  • Multiprocessor systems

  • PR/SM

  • Logical partitions (LPAR’s)

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


I o devices that connect to mainframe servers l.jpg

I/O Devices That Connect To Mainframe Servers

  • Direct access storage devices, or DASD

  • Tape Drives and Optical Disks

  • Display And Other Terminals

  • Printers

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Virtual Storage

Figure 1-08a

An overview of virtual storage and multiprogramming

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Spooling

Figure 1-09a

How the operating system spools output from application programs

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Figure 1-10a

Batch Processing

How batch processing works

  • Job Control Language

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Time sharing l.jpg

Time Sharing

Figure 1-11a

Multiple users in a time sharing environment

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Time Line

Figure 1-12a

The evolution of the OS/390 and z/OS operating system

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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A Partial Listing Of OS/390 And z/OS Services

  • Base Control Program (BCP or MVS)

  • Workload Manager (WLM)

  • Systems Management Services

  • Application Enablement Services

  • OS/390 UNIX System Services

  • Distributed computing services

  • Communication Server

  • LAN Services Network Computing Services

  • Network File System (NFS)

  • Softcopy Services

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


New features in z os version 1 release 2 l.jpg

New Features In z/OS Version 1, Release 2

  • HiperSockets

  • TCP/IP Networking enhancements

  • Internet and Intranet Security enhancements

  • Distributed Print

  • New File System and C++ compiler

  • Intelligent Resource Director (IRD)

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Chapter 2

  • OS/390 and z/OS concepts and terms

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Objectives

  • Applied objective

    • Assign an appropriate name to a new data set.

  • Knowledge objectives

    • Identify what an address space is.

    • In general terms, explain how address spaces are used to implement virtual storage and multiprogramming.

    • In general terms, explain how paging is used to transfer portions of an address space to and from real storage.

    • In general terms, explain how swapping is used to transfer entire address spaces in and out of virtual storage.

    • Identify the information contained in a volume label.

    • Describe the role of the VTOC in processing DASD data sets.

    • Describe the three data set organizations that aremost commonly used today: sequential, partitioned, and VSAM key-sequenced.

    • Distinguish between master and user catalogs.

    • Describe how the high-level qualifier in a data set name is commonly used.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Objectives (2)

  • Knowledge objectives (Continued)

    • Describe unit allocation, volume allocation, and data set allocation.

    • List and describe the three types of open modes that can be used to open a file.

    • Distinguish between a job and a job step.

    • Identify the basic functions of the JOB, EXEC, and DD JCL statements.

    • Describe the basic function of a Job Entry Subsystem.

    • Name the five steps that are involved in processing a job.

    • Describe how the job class and priority affect the scheduling of a job.

    • Describe the four types of SYSOUT data that are produced by most jobs: the JES message log, the JCL listing, the system message log, and program output.

    • Describe how the output class affects the handling of SYSOUT data set.

    • Distinguish between system generation and system initialization.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Address spaces l.jpg

Figure 2-01a

Address spaces

  • Key Concepts

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Multiple virtual storage l.jpg

Figure 2-02a

Multiple Virtual Storage

  • Uses DASD to Expand Memory

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Address space swapping l.jpg

Figure 2-03a

Address Space Swapping

  • Locating The Pages

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


A virtual storage address space l.jpg

Figure 2-04a

A Virtual Storage Address Space

  • Two Basic Areas

    • The Private Area

    • The Common Area.

  • Special Provisions For The First 16mb Of Address

  • Common Areas Have Two Sections.

    • Above The 16MB Line

    • Below It.

  • Common Area Contains

    • The Nucleus

    • Other Operating System Data.

  • The Private Area Contains

    • Data Unique To Each User’s Address Space

    • The Program Being Executed.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Dataspaces and hiperspaces on a system l.jpg

Figure 2-05a

Dataspaces And Hiperspaces On A System

  • Definitions

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Figure 2-06a

DASD Labels Identify Files On A Volume

  • z/OS identifies data sets on DASD with labels.

  • DASD volumes contain a volume label,

  • The VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) contains labels calledData Set Control Blocks, or DSCBs,

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Rules for forming data set names l.jpg

Rules For Forming Data Set Names

  • Length1 to 44 characters (standard) 1 to 35 characters (generation data group; see chapter 12) Only first 17 characters are used for tape data sets

  • Characters Alphanumeric (A-Z, 0-9) National (@,#, and $) Period (.)

  • QualifiersData set names with more than 8 characters broken intoqualifiers 1 to 8 characters. Separate qualifiers with periods.

  • First character The first character of each qualifier must be a letter or national character.

  • Last characterThe last character of a data set name should not be a period.

A valid data set name

AR.TRANS.Y2001

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


File organization l.jpg

Figure 2-07a

File Organization

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Partitioned Data Set With Three Members

Figure 2-08a

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Figure 2-09a

Catalog Structure

  • The relationships among the master catalog, user catalogs, and data sets

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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The EBCDIC Codes For Alphanumeric Characters

Figure 2-10b

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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The Three Levels Of Data Set Allocation

  • Level 1: Unit allocation

    • generic name or group name.

    • A generic name an IBM-supplied name indicating a device type

    • A group name, or esoteric name, flexible way to allocate units.

  • Level 2: Volume allocation

    • Volume serial number (vol-ser).

    • Non-specific volume request

      • Non-specific volume requests aren’t valid for existing data sets.

  • Level 3: Data set allocation

    • For new data sets, file labels are created, space allocated, and the VTOC is updated.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


How data sets are processed l.jpg

Figure 2-12a

How Data Sets Are Processed

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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What This Course Is About

  • Jobs

  • Job Control Language JCL

  • JES

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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Three Basic JCL Statements

  • JOBinformation that identifies the job.

  • EXECIndicates the program to be executed.

  • DD Identifies a file to be processed.

JCL statements for a job that prints a report

//MM01RN JOB (36512),'R MENENDEZ',NOTIFY=MM01

//RPTRUN EXEC PGM=RPT3000

//CUSTMAST DD DSNAME=MM01.CUSTOMER.MASTER,DISP=SHR

//SALESRPT DD SYSOUT=A

//ERRLIST DD SYSOUT=A

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


How jes2 and jes3 process jobs l.jpg

Figure 2-13b

How JES2 and JES3 process jobs

  • How a job enters the system

    • Entering JCL commands into a display terminal.

    • Terminal user issues:

      • SUBMIT, or SUB, command

      • JES2 or JES3 then copies it to the queue on the JES spool.

  • Scheduling for execution

    • JES examines jobs in the queue and prioritizes the work.

    • Job class and priority classify a job’s importance.

      • An initiator program runs in the system region of an address space eligible for batch job processing.

      • Each initiator can handle one job at a time.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


Job classes l.jpg

Job Classes

  • Typical job class assignments

    • Job classCharacteristics

    • AExecute within 15 minutes of submission.

    • BExecute within 30 minutes of submission.

    • CExecute within 1 hour of submission.

    • DExecute overnight.

    • HHold until released by an operator.

    • LExecute within 15 minutes of submission

      • Each step is limited to 1 minute of execution time.

  • How job classes are assigned to initiators

    • InitiatorEligible job classes

    • 1A

    • 2B,C,D,H,L

    • 3B,C

    • 4C

  • © 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


    How a job is executed once an initiator selects it l.jpg

    Figure 2-15

    How A Job Is Executed Once An Initiator Selects It

    © 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


    Output controls l.jpg

    OUTPUT Controls

    • The SYSOUT data sets produced by most jobs

      • SYSOUT data setDescription

      • JESMSGLGA listing of messages produced by JES2 or JES3 as the job was executed.

      • JESJCL The JES JCL listing is a listing of the JCL processed by the job.

      • JESYSMSGThe system message log is a collection of message produced as the job was executed.

      • SYSOUT SYSOUT data produced by a program executed in the job.

    • Typical output class assignments

      • Output classType of output

      • AStandard printer output, routed to one of the installation’s high-speed printers

      • BSpecial printer output.

      • XHeld output that stays on the SYSOUT queue until released for printing or deleted.

    © 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


    Sysgen l.jpg

    SYSGEN

    • System generation

      • System generation (sysgen) creates the system.

      • IBM sends or Downloads distribution libraries.

        • System generation selects and assembles components needed to create a working system.

      • Systems programmer codes special macro instructions specifying how components should be put together.

      • The output is a series of system libraries containing, the executable code that makes up the operating system.

    © 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


    Initialization l.jpg

    Initialization

    • System initialization

      • The process of starting a previously generated system

        • Immediately after sysgen

        • Reinitialized due to system maintenance or a system error.

    • Operator uses the system console to start an Initial Program Load, or IPL.

      • System clears its real storage

      • Loads the operating system from the system libraries

    © 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


    End presentation l.jpg

    End Presentation

    © 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM


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