English Linguistics 1. 3 What's in a word: lexicology 3.1 Conceptual and lexical categories 3.1.1 Conceptual categories 3.1.2 Lexical categories 3.2 Words and meanings 3.2.1 Routes to meaning 3.2.2 What is meaning?. 3.3 Lexical fields 3.4 Lexical relations/meaning relations
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
3.1 Conceptual and lexical categories
3.1.1 Conceptual categories
3.1.2 Lexical categories
3.2 Words and meanings3.2.1 Routes to meaning3.2.2 What is meaning?
3.4 Lexical relations/meaning relations
3.4.2. Relationships of contrast
3.4.3. Hierarchical relationships
3.6 Metaphor and metonymy
aspects focused on so far:signs - the link between their (material) form and meaning / function
in order to get a better understanding of the nature of language:a 'look' into the minds of the speakers /
the conceptual world –
the pre-linguistic world
a person's 'idea' of what something in the world is likee.g. 'mother', 'dog' – single entities
→ conceptual categories
whenever we perceive sth.
we attempt to categorize it,
e.g. piece of music
jazz, rock, pop, classical, techno, ethno, world music etc.
conceptual categories laid down / expressed in language
= linguistic categories (signs)
we all have made experience
that there are more concepts
than linguistic expressions,
e.g. when we try to describe a phenomenon knowing that there is no exact term;
different from just not knowing a term!
other modes of expression
realization as sound
Fig. 3-1: Fromconcepttosound (simplified)
What makes the step from concept to linguisticcategory so interesting?
problems / questions:
- Are concepts universal/ the same for all humans?
- Are concepts socio-culturally determined?
- What happens when concepts are 'translated' into languages?
no attempt at definite answers!
just a glimpse at some phenomena
compare expressions for same concept in different languages:
→ different languages may 'translate' the same phenomenon differently – the construal / construction of the 'world' in linguistic items
Signs differently motivated:
E , F, I – relationship between the animal as a whole and the protecting device
F, I, G –
E grand piano -
F piano à queue -
G Flügel -
F and G
concept: 'part of the street for pedestrians'
BE pavement -
AE sidewalk -
F trottoir - from trotter:
G Gehsteig -
AuGTrottoir - see French, but?
words or lexical categories
similar relationships applies also to 'translation'
Look at that rain.
same lexical category: rain
different word classes: (1) noun, (2) verb
when transforming a concept into a linguistic category languages may focus on different characteristics / features of the concept and make this characteristic the most prominent by expressing it linguistically,
at the same time – disregard other features;
the same applies to more complex conceptual phenomena
examples from 3.1.1 relatively 'clear' (horse-shoe, piano, pavement)
definition/ description of their
can be agreed upon by different people
other cases add another dimension,
many different shapes and types -
'container for flowers'
question: whatisourconceptof a typical 'vase'?
task: draw a picture of a 'chair', that comes to your mind, do not think too long about it, there is no 'right' or 'wrong'
– the subtype that first comes to mind
= prototype / prototypical member
≠ peripheral members
Fig. 3-3: Chairs
category of stools different from chairs –
lack of a back
Fig. 3-4: A selectionofthedrawingsofcup-likeobjectsusedbyLabov
3.2.1 Routes to meaning
Two starting points:
1. word which senses?
2. concept which words?
dictionary fruit a, b, c, d…..
word form list of various senses
= semasiology (Greek sema 'sign')
Look up the senses/meanings of 'fruit' in the DCE or another monolingual dictionary (at least 5 to 6 meanings):
fruit /fru:t/ n plural fruit or fruits
onomasiology (Greek ónoma 'name')
concept list of words which denote the same or similar concepts
use a dictionary of synonyms to find synonyms for the concept of 'fruit':
(thesaurus, synonym finder)
no generally accepted definition of 'meaning'
words name or label things in the world,
two aspects are taken care of:
distinction between denotation and reference
e.g. A cat.
Three men .
two aspects -
all 'things' in the world the expression can be used to refer to
and the inherent / internal characteristics or features
distinction between extension and intension
all things, facts, abstract ideas …
which can be referred to by the same linguistic expression
(= ~ denotation, see above)
the features which define the expression
different intensions (up to 2007):
the prime minister of GB, the Labour leader, Cherie's husband
the semantic triangle –
room for the idea, the concept
Other types of meaning
(so far: 'denotation and reference')
That girl is a real cat. ('unpleasant woman')
cat – different from cat1 (denotation)
they differ in denotation - they also differ in the associations that come to our mind
+ types of meaning which refer to associations that words have for us
connotation / connotational meanings
stylistic or social:
give other choices with a stylistic difference
the Holy Ghost,
pretty - handsome
pretty + [ ]
handsome + [ ]
different in their collocations
languages differ in the collocational range of words
G Nase, Zähne, Schuheputzen