english linguistics 1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
English Linguistics 1

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

English Linguistics 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 203 Views
  • Uploaded on

English Linguistics 1. 3 What\'s in a word: lexicology 3.1 Conceptual and lexical categories 3.1.1 Conceptual categories 3.1.2 Lexical categories 3.2 Words and meanings 3.2.1 Routes to meaning 3.2.2 What is meaning?. 3.3 Lexical fields 3.4 Lexical relations/meaning relations

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' English Linguistics 1' - arnie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2

3 What\'s in a word: lexicology

3.1 Conceptual and lexical categories

3.1.1 Conceptual categories

3.1.2 Lexical categories

3.2 Words and meanings3.2.1 Routes to meaning3.2.2 What is meaning?

Session 3

slide3

3.3 Lexical fields

3.4 Lexical relations/meaning relations

3.4.1. Synonymy

3.4.2. Relationships of contrast

3.4.3. Hierarchical relationships

Session 3

slide4

3.5 Lexical ambiguity

3.5.1 Polysemy

3.5.2 Homonymy

3.6 Metaphor and metonymy

3.6.1 Metaphor

3.6.2 Metonymy

Session 3

slide5

3.1 Conceptual and lexical categories

aspects focused on so far:signs - the link between their (material) form and meaning / function

in order to get a better understanding of the nature of language:a \'look\' into the minds of the speakers /

the conceptual world –

the pre-linguistic world

Session 3

slide6

3.1.1 Conceptual categories

concept:

a person\'s \'idea\' of what something in the world is likee.g. \'mother\', \'dog\' – single entities

Session 3

slide7

humans tend to \'slice\' reality into discernible units 

→ conceptual categories

whenever we perceive sth.

we attempt to categorize it,

e.g. piece of music

classification as

jazz, rock, pop, classical, techno, ethno, world music etc. 

Session 3

slide8

conceptual categories laid down / expressed in language

= linguistic categories (signs)

we all have made experience

that there are more concepts

than linguistic expressions,

e.g. when we try to describe a phenomenon knowing that there is no exact term;

different from just not knowing a term!

Session 3

slide9

conceptual categories/stage

linguistic categories/level

other modes of expression

lexicon

syntax/grammar

sign

form

meaning

realization as sound

Fig. 3-1: Fromconcepttosound (simplified)

Session 3

slide10

What makes the step from concept to linguisticcategory so interesting?

problems / questions:

- Are concepts universal/ the same for all humans?

- Are concepts socio-culturally determined?

- What happens when concepts are \'translated\' into languages?

no attempt at definite answers!

just a glimpse at some phenomena

Session 3

slide11

compare expressions for same concept in different languages:

E

F

G Hufeisen

I

→ different languages may \'translate\' the same phenomenon differently – the construal / construction of the \'world\' in linguistic items

Session 3

slide12

Signs differently motivated:

E , F, I – relationship between the animal as a whole and the protecting device

G –

F, I, G –

E –

Session 3

slide13

E grand piano -

F piano à queue -

G Flügel -

F and G

Session 3

slide14

concept: \'part of the street for pedestrians\'

BE pavement -

AE sidewalk -

F trottoir - from trotter:

G Gehsteig -

Bürgersteig -

AuGTrottoir - see French, but?

Session 3

slide15

so far: conceptual categories \'translated\'

 words or lexical categories

similar relationships applies also to \'translation\'

grammatical categories

Session 3

slide16

different ways of saying more or less the same thing

Look at that rain.

same lexical category: rain

different word classes: (1) noun, (2) verb

Session 3

slide17

E kiss

Navajo

Session 3

slide18

Summary:

when transforming a concept into a linguistic category languages may focus on different characteristics / features of the concept and make this characteristic the most prominent by expressing it linguistically,

at the same time – disregard other features;

the same applies to more complex conceptual phenomena

Session 3

slide19

3.1.2 Lexical categories

examples from 3.1.1 relatively \'clear\' (horse-shoe, piano, pavement)

definition/ description of their

\'lexical meaning\'

can be agreed upon by different people

other cases add another dimension,

e.g. vase?

Session 3

slide20

ex. vase

many different shapes and types -

common denominator:

\'container for flowers\'

question: whatisourconceptof a typical \'vase\'?

Fig. 3-2

Session 3

slide21

ex. chair:

task: draw a picture of a \'chair\', that comes to your mind, do not think too long about it, there is no \'right\' or \'wrong\'

Session 3

slide22

the most typical or best member

– the subtype that first comes to mind

= prototype / prototypical member

≠ peripheral members

Session 3

slide23

Fig. 3-3: Chairs

category of stools different from chairs –

lack of a back

Session 3

slide24

Fig. 3-4: A selectionofthedrawingsofcup-likeobjectsusedbyLabov

Session 3

slide25

centre firmly established

  • boundaries far from absolute
  • fuzzy, overlap

Session 3

slide26

3.2 Words and meanings

3.2.1 Routes to meaning

Two starting points:

1. word which senses?

2. concept which words?

Session 3

slide27

ad 1.

dictionary fruit a, b, c, d…..

word form  list of various senses

= semasiology (Greek sema \'sign\')

Look up the senses/meanings of \'fruit\' in the DCE or another monolingual dictionary (at least 5 to 6 meanings):

Session 3

slide30

ad 2.

onomasiology (Greek ónoma \'name\')

concept list of words which denote the same or similar concepts

use a dictionary of synonyms to find synonyms for the concept of \'fruit\':

(thesaurus, synonym finder)

Session 3

slide31

fruit, n.

a.

b.

Session 3

slide32

3.2.2 What is meaning?

  no generally accepted definition of \'meaning\'

suggestion (1):

words name or label things in the world,

two aspects are taken care of:

 distinction between denotation and reference

Session 3

slide33

denotation – class of things indicated by a word

  • reference – a particular thing when the word is used

e.g. A cat.

A cat.

Three men .

Three men.

Session 3

slide34

suggestion (2):

two aspects -

all \'things\' in the world the expression can be used to refer to

and the inherent / internal characteristics or features

 distinction between extension and intension

Session 3

slide35

extension –

all things, facts, abstract ideas …

which can be referred to by the same linguistic expression

(= ~ denotation, see above)

  • intension –

the features which define the expression

Session 3

slide36

exs.:

eveningstar,

morningstar –

different intension,

same extension

=

Tony Blair(extension)

different intensions (up to 2007):

the prime minister of GB, the Labour leader, Cherie\'s husband

Session 3

slide37

suggestion (3):

the semantic triangle –

room for the idea, the concept

signifié

signified

Begriff

chose

thing

Sache

signifiant

signifier

Bezeichnung

Session 3

slide38

Other types of meaning

(so far: \'denotation and reference\')

e.g.

That girl is a real cat. (\'unpleasant woman\')

cat – different from cat1 (denotation)

they differ in denotation - they also differ in the associations that come to our mind

Session 3

slide39

+ types of meaning which refer to associations that words have for us

connotation / connotational meanings

Session 3

slide40

Try to complete the types:

individualassociations:

woman

stylistic or social:

give other choices with a stylistic difference

domicile -

Session 3

slide41

regional:

editorial –

petrol –

chips –

reflected meaning:

the Holy Ghost,

the Comforter

Session 3

slide42

collocational meaning

\'goodlooking, attractive\'

pretty - handsome

pretty + [ ]

handsome + [ ]

different in their collocations

Session 3

slide43

languages differ in the collocational range of words

G Nase, Zähne, Schuheputzen

E

Session 3

ad