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Data Mining and Text-based Information Mark Wasson Senior Architect, Research Scientist LexisNexis [email protected] August 27, 2002. The Agenda. Knowledge Discovery, Data Mining, Text Mining From Free Text to Structured Metadata Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining in Text

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Data Mining and Text-based Information Mark Wasson Senior Architect, Research Scientist LexisNexis

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Data mining and text based information mark wasson senior architect research scientist lexisnexis

Data Mining and Text-based Information

Mark Wasson

Senior Architect, Research Scientist

LexisNexis

[email protected]

August 27, 2002

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


The agenda

The Agenda

  • Knowledge Discovery, Data Mining, Text Mining

  • From Free Text to Structured Metadata

  • Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining in Text

  • The Forecast for Data Mining and Text

  • Information Sources and Links

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining and text based information mark wasson senior architect research scientist lexisnexis

Knowledge Discovery, Data Mining, Text Mining

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is knowledge discovery

What is Knowledge Discovery?

  • Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is defined as “the non-trivial process of identifying valid, novel, potentially useful, and ultimately understandable patterns in data.”

  • Stated another way, KDD is the process of applying scaled, optimized statistical processes to large quantities of structured data in order to help users discovernew, potentially interesting patterns and information in that data.

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What folks do with kdd

What Folks Do With KDD

  • Find trends and patterns in current data in order to support predictions or classification as new data comes in

  • Explain existing data, not just describe it

  • Summarize the contents in a large database to facilitate decision making

  • Support “logical” (as opposed to graphical) data visualization to support end users

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What folks really do with kdd

What Folks Really Do With KDD

  • Business trends and financial instrument forecasting (e.g., predict the stock market)

  • Fraud detection

  • Merchandise handling and placement

  • Finding hidden relationships between entities

  • Credit worthiness evaluation and loan approvals

  • Marketing and sales data analysis

  • Recommender systems

  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

  • Bioinformatics (e.g., in silico drug discovery)

  • Defect identification and tracking

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


The 9 step kdd process

The 9-step KDD Process

  • Understand application domain; determine goals

  • Create target dataset for analysis and discovery

  • Clean data for noise, missing values, etc.

  • Perform data reduction

  • Choose best data mining method to meet goals

  • Choose best data mining algorithm for method

  • Conduct data mining, i.e., apply the algorithm

  • Review results (novel? interesting?); redo steps if necessary

  • Consolidate discovered knowledge

    Can be fully automated, but often highly interactive

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is data mining classic def n

What is Data Mining? (classic def’n)

  • A synonym for Knowledge Discovery

  • The statistical/analytical processing within the KDD process

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is n t data mining classic def n

What Isn’t Data Mining (classic def’n)

  • Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)

  • Information Retrieval

  • Finding and extracting proper names and other pieces of information in a text

  • Document categorization and indexing

  • Simple descriptive statistics (e.g., average, mean, median)

    These tools do help find potentially interesting existing information, but not discovernew information.

    • Not necessarily new just because it’s new to you

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is data mining buzzword

What is Data Mining? (buzzword)

  • With the emergence of successful data mining applications in the mid to late-1990s, everyone piled on to the term “data mining”

  • Today “data mining” is widely used to label tools and processes that

    • Discover new, potentially interesting information

    • Find existing, potentially interesting information

  • “Knowledge discovery” still specifically emphasizes discovery

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is text mining classic def n

What is Text Mining? (classic def’n)

  • Text mining is the process of applying knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to information found in a collection of texts in order to help users discovernew, potentially interesting patterns and information in that data.

  • Combines information from multiple texts

    • What is in an individual text is known information

      • Authors know what they write

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is text mining buzzword

What is Text Mining? (buzzword)

  • Computational linguists have piled on, too!

  • Today, “text mining” is widely used to label tools and processes that

    • Discover new, potentially interesting information in text collections

    • Discover new, potentially interesting information in text-based information

    • Find existing, potentially interesting information in text and text collections

      • Information Retrieval

      • Named Entity, Relationship and Information Extraction

      • Categorization and Indexing

      • Question Answering

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Today s key kdd problems

Today’s Key KDD Problems

  • Not enough focus on the data

    • Collection

    • Cleansing

    • Scale

    • Completeness, including non-traditional sources

    • Structure

  • Too much focus on algorithms

  • The problem of Interestingness

    • What is interesting?

    • What isn’t?

    • How do we tell the difference?

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Kdd and text problems

KDD and Text Problems

  • We’re dealing with text!

    • Text lacks structure that traditional data mining processes can exploit

    • Information within text generally are not labeled

    • Actual and approximate synonymy

    • Ambiguity

  • Contrast with Spreadsheets, Databases, Etc.

    • Well-defined structure

    • Row, column headings identify content

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


How to fix text

How to “Fix” Text

Convert Information in Text to Metadata

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining and text based information mark wasson senior architect research scientist lexisnexis

From Free Text to Structured Metadata

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is metadata

What is Metadata?

  • Metadata is data about data

  • Content-based metadata is structured information that is somehow derived from the information content of a document rather than from the format of a document

  • Key Benefit for Data Mining: Structured representation of content

  • For our purposes references to “metadata” are references to content-based metadata

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Markup languages and metadata

Markup Languages and Metadata

  • Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

    • Meta-language for defining markup languages

    • Markup primarily used to support presentation

  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

    • SGML-based markup language for the web

    • Emphasis on structural elements of documents

  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)

    • Meta-language for defining markup languages

    • Markup supports both presentation and information/content identification

    • Ability to support information/content identification is severely limited by our ability to process text for content

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Content based metadata

Content-based Metadata

  • Publisher-provided fields

    • Publication name

    • Title

    • Author

    • Date

    • Dateline

    • Topic-indicating terms

  • A list of all the words and phrases in a document

    • Simple list

    • List of unique words and phrases

    • Sets of related terms

    • Frequency information

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Content based metadata1

Content-based Metadata

  • Specialized terms

    • Named entities (companies, people, places, etc.)

    • Citations, judges, attorneys, plaintiffs, defendants

    • Numerical information and monetary amounts

    • Noun phrases and their head nouns

    • Sentences

  • Relationships

    • Items in close proximity

    • Subject-verb-object (agent-action-patient) relationships

    • Citation-based linkages

    • Coreference-based linkages

      (John Smith left Microsoft. He joined IBM.)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Content based metadata2

Content-based Metadata

  • Content-indicating annotations

    • Controlled vocabulary indexing

    • Statistically interesting extracted terms

    • Abstracts, summaries

    • Specialized fields

    • Domain templates

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Value of content based metadata

Value of Content-based Metadata

  • Search support (information finding)

    • Find and retrieve documents

    • Link to related documents

  • Analysis support (information understanding)

    • Overall content summarization

  • This has real value to information users

    • Link metadata to documents via good document IDs

    • Provide metadata to customers who can use it for retrieval from their own search and analysis tools

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Metadata creation technologies

Metadata Creation Technologies

  • Publisher-provided fields

    • Some basic standardization helps

  • Simple term listing and counting

    • Generally easy, and quite good

  • Finding Specialized Terms

    • Lots of good pattern recognition tools, including SRA’s NetOwl, Inxight’s ThingFinder

    • Pattern recognition, lexicons do well for most categories (literary titles, product names are hard)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Metadata creation technologies1

Metadata Creation Technologies

  • Linguistics-based lexical tools

    • Morphological analysis, part of speech tagging

    • Inxight’s LinguistX

  • Sentence boundary detection

    • Easily doable, but many need to consider more text

  • Linguistics-based syntactic tools

    • Shallow parsing

    • Deep parsing

    • Coreference resolution

    • Varied text, difficult but progressing

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Metadata creation technologies2

Metadata Creation Technologies

  • Finding related items

    • Proximity, within sentence easy

    • Subject-verb-object/agent-action-patient requires some degree of parsing

    • Coreference-based relationship finding requires coreference resolution

    • SRA’s NetOwl

    • ClearForest’s rule books

    • Insightful’s InFact, SVO

    • Cymfony’s Brand Dashboard

    • Attensity, SVO

    • Alias I, coreference-based

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Metadata creation technologies3

Metadata Creation Technologies

  • Template-driven extraction

    • Often combines many technologies into domain-specific applications

    • Clear Forest’s rule books

    • WhizBang (defunct, now Inxight?) machine learning-based extraction

    • Various “web-farming” technologies, e.g., Caesius

    • University of Sheffield’s GATE tool kit

  • Automatic abstracting/summarization

    • Leading text best for individual news documents

    • Columbia University’s NewsBlaster for multiple texts

    • True summary generation – a hard problem

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Metadata creation technologies4

Metadata Creation Technologies

  • Document categorization and indexing

    • 80% - 90% accurate (recall and precision) common

    • Often integrated with editorial processes

    • Inxight

    • Nstein

    • Stratify

    • Verity

    • A lot of others

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Metadata creation technologies5

Metadata Creation Technologies

  • Metadata creation technologies

    • Text mining?

  • Read about them

    • Natural Language Processing for Online Applications – Text Retrieval, Extraction and Categorization (John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002)

      Peter Jackson, Vice President of R&D, and

      Isabelle Moulinier, Senior Research Scientist,

      Thomson Legal & Regulatory

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining and text based information mark wasson senior architect research scientist lexisnexis

Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining in Text

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Combining kdd and metadata

Combining KDD and Metadata

  • What is Knowledge Discovery in Metadata?

    (The term is unique to us, by the way; Ronen Feldman et al called this Knowledge Discovery in Text)

  • It is KDD that incorporates document metadata into its data collection step

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Basic kdd task using metadata

Basic KDD Task Using Metadata

  • Data source selection

  • Metadata creation, organization

  • Perhaps combine with other appropriate data

    • Align data based on common attributes

    • Align data based on date or time

    • Use knowledge sources to guide analysis of metadata (e.g., world knowledge, thesauri, etc.)

  • Analyze the data

    • Language-aware processes, e.g., SVO

    • Routine processes that apply to structured content

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Research problems

Research Problems

  • Does document metadata have value for KDD applications in addition to its value for information finding and retrieval purposes?

  • If so, where?

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Example 1 trend analysis

Example 1 – Trend Analysis

  • Research at LexisNexis

  • Can daily “hot topics” be identified automatically by comparing today’s indexing frequency for the topic to its recent history?

    • Track controlled vocabulary indexing assignments over time to determine a historical average

    • Compare today’s frequency of assignment for a given company’s index term to its historical average

    • If it exceeds some threshold, flag it as a “hot” company in that day’s news

    • Analysts confirmed 96.2% of 1,137 flagged companies, company pairs were in fact “hot”

      See Shewhart & Wasson (1999)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Example 2 emerging technologies

Example 2 – Emerging Technologies

  • Research at IBM

  • Can trends in emerging and fading technologies be identified?

    • Extract, normalize and monitor vocabulary found in documents and compare it to document categories

    • Provide users with a querying tool where they can specify the “shape” of the trend

    • Used patent data

      See Lent et al. (1997)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Example 3 influence of news stories

Example 3 - Influence of News Stories

  • Work at University of Massachusetts

  • Can specific news stories be identified that will influence the behavior in financial markets?

    • Examine features of news articles that occurred before interesting changes in the financial markets

    • Find patterns of features that regularly occur before interesting changes

    • In future data, monitor incoming stories for those patterns for alert purposes

    • Real-time data, real-time stock prices

      See Lavrenko et al. (2000)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Example 4 citation pattern analysis

Example 4 - Citation Pattern Analysis

  • Can citation histories be used to identify potential relationships between specific illnesses and other features, exposures, medications, etc.

    • Collect the citations in a large medical texts collection

    • Examine citation chains in pairs of domains that do not directly cite one another

    • Measure the amount of overlap in the citation chain

    • Verify results through clinical medical research

      See Swanson & Smalheiser (1996)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Example 5 sentiment detection

Example 5 - Sentiment Detection

  • Work at Webmind (out of business)

  • Is the tone of news stories, Usenet discussions, website stories, etc., about some company, its management or its products positive or negative?

    • Use categorization technology to determine the positive or negative tone in individual documents about a given company or its products

    • Combine results across all documents about that company or its products

    • Compute a score or summarize the results

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Example 6 link genes to diseases

Example 6 - Link Genes to Diseases

  • Work at Hewlett Packard Laboratories

  • Can sets of genes be associated with given diseases by analyzing MEDLINE abstracts?

    • Identify references to genes, addressing major problems with recognition, ambiguity and synonymy in this domain

    • Identify references to targeted diseases

    • Statistically analyze co-occurrence patterns between mentions of the genes and mentions of diseases for statistically significant correlations

      See Adamic et al. (2002)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Additional examples

Additional Examples

  • Analyzing the activities of a person, company or organization using its role as subject/agent or object/patient in clauses

  • Predicting the spread between borrowing and lending interest rates

  • Identifying technical traders in the T-bonds futures market

  • Daily predictions of major stock indexes

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining and text vendors

Data Mining and Text Vendors

  • Alias I

  • Attensity

  • ClearForest

  • eNeuralNet

  • IBM (Intelligent Miner for Text)

  • Inforsense

  • Insightful (InFact)

  • Megaputer Intelligence

  • SAS (Enterprise Miner, Inxight)

  • SPSS (LexiQuest)

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining and text based information mark wasson senior architect research scientist lexisnexis

The Forecast for Data Mining and Text

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


What is the forecast for kdt

What is the forecast for KDT?

  • Can we get information from unstructured (free) text into some structured format?

  • Are there enough interesting KDD applications where access to content-based metadata from text actually produces interesting results?

  • Does adding text-based information to existing data mining and knowledge discovery applications make them better?

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Kdt 1996 1999

KDT, 1996-1999

  • A handful of interesting experiments published

    • Mostly one-off experiments

    • Almost no evidence any of it was commercialized

  • Holding back the research

    • Almost no one had access to large quantities of appropriate metadata for research purposes

    • Linguistics technologies still maturing, often too slow

    • Almost no one had the combination of content and tools to generate large quantities of appropriate metadata for research purposes

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Kdt 2000

KDT, 2000+

  • Movement. Early stages, but movement

  • Maturing, scaleable tools in classification and extraction from web content and other texts to create metadata

  • Products from the Big 3 analytical tool providers (SAS, SPSS, Insightful)

  • Companies created to focus on it (not always successful), such as ClearForest, Webmind

  • Emerging importance of bioinformatics, availability of MEDLINE content

  • But data mining hit hard by dot-com collapse

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


The forecast

The Forecast

  • KDT is emerging, but slowly

  • Still in early stages

  • Lots of promise

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining and text based information mark wasson senior architect research scientist lexisnexis

Information Sources and Links

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Resources

Resources

  • KDnuggets, http://www.kdnuggets.com

  • ACM Special Interest Group in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, http://www.acm.org/sigkdd/

  • Association for Computational Linguistics, http://www.aclweb.org

  • Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (journal), Kluwer Academic Publishers, http://www.digimine.com/usama/datamine/

  • Companies, http://www.kdnuggets.com/companies/

  • Glossary of Terms, http://www3.shore.net/~kht/glossary.htm

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Related technical conferences

Related Technical Conferences

  • The 3rd SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, May 1-3, 2003, San Francisco, CA http://www.siam.org/meetings/sdm03/

  • 2003 North American Association for Computational Linguistics/Human Language Technology Joint Conference, approx. early June, 2003, Edmonton, AB

    http://www.aclweb.org

  • The 9th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, August 24-27, 2003, Washington, DC http://www.acm.org/sigkdd/kdd2003/

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Books

Books

  • Fayyad, U., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., Smyth, P., & Uthurusamy, R. (1996). Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. AAAI Press / The MIT Press.

  • Jackson, P., & Moulinier, I. (2002). Natural Language Processing for Online Applications – Text Retrieval, Extraction and Categorization. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Company links

Company Links

Attensity, http://www.attensity.com

Alias I, http://www.alias-i.com

Caesius, http://www.caesius.com

ClearForest, http://www.clearforest.com

Columbia University, http://www.cs.columbia.edu/nlp/newsblaster/

Cymfony, http://www.cymfony.com

eNeuralNet, http://www.eneuralnet.com

Hewlett Packard Labs, http://www.hpl.hp.com/org/stl/dmsd/

IBM, http://www-3.ibm.com/software/data/iminer/

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Company links1

Company Links

Inforsense, http://www.inforsense.com

Insightful, http://www.insightful.com

Inxight, http://www.inxight.com

John Benjamins Publishing, http://www.benjamins.com/cgi-bin/t_bookview.cgi?bookid=NLP_5

Megaputer Intelligence, http://www.megaputer.com

Nstein, http://www.nstein.com

SAS, http://www.sas.com

SPSS, http://www.spss.com

SRA International, http://www.sra.com

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Company links2

Company Links

Stratify, http://www.stratify.com

University of Massachusetts-Amherst, http://ciir.cs.umass.edu/

University of Sheffield, http://gate.ac.uk/

Verity, http://www.verity.com

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining text references

Data Mining/Text References

Adamic, L., Wilkinson, D., Huberman, B., & Adar, E. (2002). A Literature Based Method for Identifying Gene-Disease Connections. Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Computer Society Bioinformatics Conference.

Lavrenko, V., Schmill, M., Lawrie, D., Ogilvie, P., Jensen, D., & Allan, J. (2000). Language Models for Financial News Recommendation. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management.

Lent, B., Agrawal, R., & Srikant, R. (1997). Discovering Trends in Text Databases. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.

Shewhart, M., & Wasson, M. (1999). Monitoring Newsfeeds for “Hot Topics.”Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.

Swanson, D., & Smalheiser, N. (1996). Undiscovered Public Knowledge: A Ten-year Update. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


Data mining and text based information mark wasson senior architect research scientist lexisnexis

Questions?

You can also contact me at

[email protected]

Data Mining and Text-based Information - Mark Wasson


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