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CSC 2260 Operating Systems and Networks. Chapter 7 Fall 2008 Dr. Chuck Lillie. Managing Local Security in Windows. Chapter. 7. Threats to Computers and Users Defense Against Threats Windows Local Security Accounts Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

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Csc 2260 operating systems and networks

CSC 2260Operating Systems and Networks

Chapter 7

Fall 2008

Dr. Chuck Lillie


Managing local security in windows

Managing Local Security in Windows

Chapter

7

Threats to Computers and Users

Defense Against Threats

Windows Local Security Accounts

Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Recognize security threats and vulnerabilities to desktop PCs and users

  • Implement methods and technologies that protect against threats

  • Create local user accounts in Windows

  • Assign permissions to files, folders, and printers in Windows

  • Troubleshoot common security problems in Windows


Threats to computers and users

Threats to Computers and Users

  • Computer Hardware Theft

    • Secure computers physically

    • Laptops more vulnerable

    • Unsophisticated thieves steal for the value of hardware.

    • Sophisticated thieves will search hard drive for data.


Threats to computers and users1

Threats to Computers and Users

  • Identify Theft

    • Personal information is stolen and used to commit fraud

    • Obtaining a social security number and other key personal information may be enough to steal someone's identity

  • Fraud

    • The use of deceit and trickery to obtain money or other valuables


Threats to computers and users2

Threats to Computers and Users

  • Accidents, Mistakes, and Natural and Unnatural Disasters

    • Fires; Earthquakes; Weather; Etc.

    • Protect against disasters with frequent, comprehensive backups

    • Backup critical data files

    • Multiple backup sets


Threats to computers and users3

Threats to Computers and Users

  • Accidents, Mistakes, Natural and Unnatural Disasters (Continued)

    • Deliberate Attacks


Threats to computers and users4

Threats to Computers and Users

  • Accidents, Mistakes, Natural and Unnatural Disasters (continued)

    • Deliberate Attacks (continued)

      • Spim

      • Phishing

      • Exposure to Inappropriate or Distasteful Content

      • Invasion of Privacy

      • Hoaxes

      • In Addition …


Defense against threats

Defense Against Threats

  • Authentication and Authorization

    • Authentication

      • Verification of who you are

        • Your identity (user name)

      • One-factor authentication

        • Something you know (password)

      • Two-factor authentication

        • Something you know plus something you have (a token, like a bankcard)

      • Three-factor authentication

        • Above plus biometric data (retinal scan, voice print, etc.)


Defense against threats1

Defense Against Threats

  • Authentication and Authorization (continued)

    • Authorization

      • Determines the level of access to a computer or a resource.

      • Includes both authentication, plus verification of access level

      • Permission describes an action that can be performed on an object


Defense against threats2

Defense Against Threats

  • Authentication and Authorization (continued)

    • Password

      • A string of characters entered for authentication

      • Don’t take passwords for granted

      • Don’t use the same password everywhere

      • Basic defense against invasion of privacy

      • Use long and complex password

      • Do not use common words


Defense against threats3

Defense Against Threats

  • Best Practices with User Names and Passwords

    • Don't Give Away Your User Name and Password

    • Create Strong Passwords

    • Never Reuse Passwords

    • Avoid Creating Unnecessary Online Accounts

    • Don’t Provide More Information Than Necessary

    • Always Use Strong Passwords for Certain Types of Accounts


Defense against threats4

Defense Against Threats

  • Security Accounts

    • An account that can be assigned permission to take action on an object or the right to take action on an entire system.


Defense against threats5

Defense Against Threats

  • Security Accounts (continued)

    • User Accounts

      • Individual account

      • Includes user name and password

      • Full name, description, and other information

      • Exist in all Windows security accounts databases


Defense against threats6

Defense Against Threats

  • Security Accounts (continued)

    • Group Accounts

      • Contain one or more user and group accounts

      • Exist in all Windows Security accounts databases

    • Computer Accounts

      • Computers may have accounts

      • Exist in Microsoft domain security accounts databases


Defense against threats7

Defense Against Threats

  • Encryption

    • Transformation of data into a code that can only be decrypted with a secret key or password

    • Secret key is a special code used to decrypt

    • Encrypt a local or network-based file

    • Encrypt data before sending over a network


Defense against threats8

Defense Against Threats

  • Encryption (continued)

    • Only someone with the password or key can decrypt data

    • Secret key may be held in a digital certificate

    • Encrypt sensitive data stored on a laptop or in a setting where data theft is a concern

    • NTFS5 supports file and folder encryption


Defense against threats9

Defense Against Threats

  • Firewalls

    • Firewall technologies

      • IP packet filter

      • Proxy service

      • Encrypted authentication

      • Virtual private network (VPN)


Defense against threats10

Defense Against Threats

  • Firewalls (continued)

    • Working behind a Firewall in a Large Organization

      • Firewall configured based on the computers it is protecting.

    • Working Behind a Firewall at Home or on a Small LAN

      • Hardware for home and small business called "broadband routers“

      • Personal software firewall utilities


Defense against threats11

Defense Against Threats

Step-by-Step 7.01

Configure the Windows Firewall

Page 324


Defense against threats12

Defense Against Threats

  • Anti-Spam

    • Spam filters

      • On corporate mail servers

      • Internet-based spam filtering service

      • Installed on desktop computers

      • Not perfect – may need configuration


Defense against threats13

Defense Against Threats

  • Antivirus

    • Examines contents of disk or RAM for hidden viruses

    • Detects and removes virus

    • Antivirus engine and definitions

    • Requires updating – usually a paid subscription

    • Free programs available for personal use


Defense against threats14

Defense Against Threats

  • Anti-Pop-Up

    • Block adware, especially pop-ups

    • Pop-up blocker

    • Configurable

    • XP SP2 Pop-Up Blocker for Internet Explorer


Defense against threats15

Defense Against Threats

  • More help from Windows XP Service Pack 2

    • Windows Security Center monitors

      • Firewall

      • Automatic Updates

      • Virus Protections

    • A Manage Add-ons button in Internet Options

    • A pop-up dialog will warn of add-on installation attempt

    • Protection from opening suspect files


Defense against threats16

Defense Against Threats

  • Privacy Protection

    • Internet Options privacy settings

      • Control handling of cookies

      • Settings from block-all-cookies to allow-all-cookies

      • Balance between convenience and risk


Defense against threats17

Defense Against Threats

  • Protection from Inappropriate or Distasteful Content

    • Web content filter

      • Add-on or feature of a web browser

      • Block or allow certain sites

      • Service on Internet give ratings to web sites

      • Configure filter to allow or disallow unrated sites

      • Content Advisor in Internet Explorer


Defense against threats18

Defense Against Threats

Step-by-Step 7.02

Check Out the Content Advisor in Internet Explorer

Page 329


Windows local security accounts

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Windows Account Administration Tools

    • Windows NT 4.0 Workstation

    • Simple Account Management in Windows 2000 and Windows XP Professional

    • Advanced Account Management in Windows 2000 and Windows XP Professional


Windows local security accounts1

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Windows Local User Accounts

    • Built-in local user accounts

      • Administrator

      • Guest

    • User-created accounts


Windows local security accounts2

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Windows Local Group Accounts

    • Built-In Local Group Accounts

    • Automatically-Created Groups

    • Special Groups/Built-in Security Principals

      • Creator owner

      • Everyone


Windows local security accounts3

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • User Rights

    • The privilege to perform a systemwide function

    • Windows NT 4.0 Workstation

      • Policy menu of User Manager

    • Windows 2000 and Windows XP

      • Local Security Policy console


Windows local security accounts4

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Granularity of Control with Groups

    • Increased in Windows 2000 and XP

    • Network Configuration Operators group

      • Built-in

      • Has a set of rights to perform network tasks


Windows local security accounts5

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Planning for Users and Groups

    • Create at least one user other than Administrator

    • XP Pro requires creation of second member of Administrators group

    • Then create a limited user


Windows local security accounts6

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Planning for Users and Groups (continued)

    • If computer is a workgroup computer … AND if it is used by more than one local user:

      • Create one limited local account for each user

    • If sharing files and printers in workgroup:

      • create an account for each network user


Windows local security accounts7

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Planning for Users and Groups (continued)

    • If computer is a member of a domain

      • Local limited accounts are not needed

      • Users may log on locally with domain accounts

    • Member of Administrators group may create users or groups

    • Use a completed planning form


Windows local security accounts8

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts

    • In a domain:

      • Management of users and groups is centralized in the domain

    • On a standalone or workgroup computer:

      • Users and groups are managed on each computer


Windows local security accounts9

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • Creating a New User

      • Create one account that is only a member of the local Users group

      • Create an additional account that is a member of the local Administrators group (mandatory in XP Pro)


Windows local security accounts10

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • User Administration in Windows NT 4.0 Workstation

      • Using User Manager requires knowledge of Windows security accounts

      • NT Workstation was targeted to advanced users or users who relied on support staff


Windows local security accounts11

Windows Local Security Accounts

Step-by-Step 7.03

Creating New Users in Windows NT 4.0 Workstation

Page 342


Windows local security accounts12

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • User Administration in Windows 2000 Pro

      • Workgroup computer can skip interactive user logon

      • Authentication is still occurring

      • Control Panel | Users and Passwords

        • Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer

        • Require users to press Ctrl-Alt-Delete before logging on


Windows local security accounts13

Windows Local Security Accounts

Step-by-Step 7.04

Creating and Configuring a New User Account in Windows 2000 Professional

Page 344


Windows local security accounts14

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • User Administration in Windows XP Pro

      • Users Accounts applet

      • Computer Administrator = member of Admin-istrators group

      • Limited account = member of Users group (and NOT also a member of Administrators)


Windows local security accounts15

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • User Administration in Windows XP Pro (continued)

      • Password Reset Disk

        • Created by/for currently logged on user

        • Use when password is forgotten

        • Will not lose access to items such as encrypted files

        • If Administrator resets—password access to encrypted files is lost

        • Gives user power to fix own passwords

        • More complicated to do in a domain


Windows local security accounts16

Windows Local Security Accounts

Step-by-Step 7.05

Creating User Accounts and a Password Reset Disk in Windows XP

Page 347


Windows local security accounts17

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • Account Policies

      • Password Policy – password length, etc.

      • Account lockout policy: lockout after failed attempts


Windows local security accounts18

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • Account Policies

      • Windows NT 4.0 Workstation Account Policies

        • Set from the Policies menu in User Manager

      • Windows 2000 Pro and Windows XP Pro

        • Set from Local Security Policy console


Windows local security accounts19

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • Configuring Protection from Physical Access

      • Log out

      • Lock computer

      • Use a password-protected screen saver

      • Select Standby or Hibernate options

      • Enable Switch User


Windows local security accounts20

Windows Local Security Accounts

  • Administering Local Windows Accounts (continued)

    • Configuring Protection from Physical Access (continued)

      • Downside of logging out & finding a better solution

      • Lock Computer

      • Password-Protected Screen Saver

      • Switch User


Applying security to files folders and printers in windows

Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

  • Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive

    • File and Folder Permissions

    • Permissions Assigned to Personal Folders

    • NTFS Permission Inheritance


Applying security to files folders and printers in windows1

Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

Step-by-Step 7.06

Viewing Permissions on Personal Folders

Page 358


Applying security to files folders and printers in windows2

Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

  • Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive

    • Combining NTFS and Share Permissions

      • Permissions on the share are combined

      • Permissions on the NTFS files system are combined

      • Most restrictive of the two sets of permissions apply


Applying security to files folders and printers in windows3

Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

  • Securing Files and Folders on an NTFS Drive

    • NTFS File and Folder Encryption

      • Feature of NTFS5 and EFS

      • Encrypting a File or Folder

      • EFS improvements in Windows XP Professional

      • Decrypting Files and Folders


Applying security to files folders and printers in windows4

Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

  • Securing a Local Printer

    • Printer Permissions consist of

      • Print

      • Manage Printer

      • Manage Documents


Applying security to files folders and printers in windows5

Applying Security to Files, Folders, and Printers in Windows

  • Securing a Local Printer (continued)

    • Default Permissions

      • Everyone print

      • Create Owner manage documents

      • Power Users and Administrators full control

    • Administrator can assign permissions


Troubleshooting common windows security problems

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems

  • Proactive Security Tasks

    • Education

      • Strange screen messages

      • Sudden computer slowdown

      • Missing data

      • Inability to access the hard drive

      • Unknown charges on credit accounts

      • Calls from creditor on unknown accounts

      • New credit turn-down for invalid reason

      • Credit bureau shows unknown accounts


Troubleshooting common windows security problems1

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems

  • Proactive Security Tasks (continued)

    • Prevention

      • A touch of paranoia

      • Proactive steps

    • Authentication, Authorization, and Passwords

    • Security for Mobile Computing

      • Be extra wary of the danger of theft

      • Encrypt sensitive and confidential data


Troubleshooting common windows security problems2

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems

  • Common Problems

    • Troubleshooting Logon Problems

      • Typos (watch for Caps Lock)

      • Account locked out

        • Call an administrator or wait until threshold time has passed

    • Unknown Account Type in the User Accounts Applet in Windows XP Professional

      • User Accounts only recognizes two account types

      • Solution: Use the Local Users and Groups node in Computer Management


Troubleshooting common windows security problems3

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems

  • Common Problems

    • Reacting to a Suspected Virus Attack

      • Scan all drives and memory with a locally installed anti-virus

      • Use a free antivirus scanner, such as Housecall, at housecall.trendmicro.com


Chapter summary

Chapter Summary

Threats to Computers and Users

  • Computer security includes keeping the hardware itself safe from theft.

  • Identify theft occurs when someone collects personal information belonging to another person and uses that information to commit fraud.

  • Losses due to accidents, mistakes, and natural and unnatural disasters will happen. Prepare for such losses by creating frequent backups, and, if necessary, store backups off-site


Chapter summary1

Chapter Summary

Threats to Computers and Users

  • Deliberate attacks against computers, networks, and data come in many forms. Just a few of these threats include spam, viruses, and spyware.

  • To keep up-to-date on computer security threats, contact the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-internet.html.


Chapter summary2

Chapter Summary

Defense Against Threats

  • Authentication and authorization are performed by a security system built into the operating systems on your local computer or on network servers.

  • A password is a string of characters that you enter, along with an identifier such as a user name, in order to be authenticated.

  • Adopt best practices with user names and passwords.


Chapter summary3

Chapter Summary

Defense Against Threats

  • A security account is an account that exists in a security account database on a server or desktop computer.

  • Security accounts can be assigned a level of access (permission) to an object (such as a file, folder, or printer) or system-level right.

  • An individual security account, called a user account, is assigned to a single person. In a network, individual security accounts may also be assigned to computers.


Chapter summary4

Chapter Summary

Defense Against Threats

  • A group account is a security account that may contain one or more individual accounts, and, in some cases, it may contain other groups.

  • Encryption is the transformation of data into a code that can only be decrypted through the use of a secret key or password.

  • A firewall sits between a private network and the Internet (or other network) and examines all traffic in and out of the network it is protecting, blocking any traffic it recognizes as a potential threat.


Chapter summary5

Chapter Summary

Defense Against Threats

  • Many products for home and small business use, described as “broadband routers,” are actually true multifunction network devices that serve as bridges, routers, and firewalls.

  • There are also personal firewall utilities for use on any desktop computer that’s directly connected to the Internet.

  • An antivirus program can examine the contents of a disk or RAM for hidden viruses and files that may act as hosts for virus code.


Chapter summary6

Chapter Summary

Defense Against Threats

  • Anti-pop-up programs block the pop-up advertising seen at many web sites.

  • Web browsers usually have privacy settings that allow you to control how and when cookies are saved on your local computer by web sites.

  • A content filter is software that can be used to block inappropriate or offensive content while browsing the Web. One can be obtained separately, or you can use the content filtering capabilities of your web browser.


Chapter summary7

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, Windows 2000 Professional, and Windows XP Professional all contain local security account databases for user and group accounts.

  • Each person who uses one of these versions of Windows must be logged on using a user name and password of a local or domain security account.

  • The one GUI administration tool for local accounts in Windows NT 4.0 Workstation is User Manager.


Chapter summary8

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • Windows 2000 Professional and Windows XP Professional each have two user management tools—a simple tool for home and small business use, and an advanced tool for professional administrators.

  • In Windows 2000 Professional, the Users and Passwords applet is the simple tool.

  • In Windows XP, the User Accounts Control Panel applet, replaces the former Users and Passwords applet and further simplifies the user management tasks.


Chapter summary9

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • A standard GUI, called the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), is used for many system manage-ment tasks in Windows 2000 and Windows XP.

  • There are two built-in user accounts in Windows: Administrator and Guest.

  • Each local user account is also a member of one or more local groups.


Chapter summary10

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • Built-in group accounts include Administrators, Backup Operators, Guests, Power Users, Replicator, and Users. Windows XP Professional includes the new Network Configuration Operators group created to give group members permissions to change the network configuration without having full Administrator privileges.

  • Other groups are created automatically when certain services are installed and groups are created by an administrator.


Chapter summary11

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • Additional built-in groups cannot be created or modified, their membership is predefined, and some are available to you only when you assign permissions or rights. In Windows NT and Windows 2000, these groups are called special groups; in Windows XP Professional, they are called built-in security principals.


Chapter summary12

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • Windows security accounts can be assigned user rights, which are privileges to perform systemwide functions, such as access the computer from the network, log on locally, log onto a computer from the network, back up files, or change the system time.


Chapter summary13

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • If a computer is used by only one person, create an ordinary user account for that person. If the computer is used by more than one local user, you should create an additional local account for each person.

  • If the computer is a member of a Windows NT or Active Directory domain, you can give access to files, folders, and printers on that computer to the users and groups in the domain.


Chapter summary14

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • If the computer is a member of a workgroup, and you wish to share local files, folders, and/or printers, then it must have local accounts for granting access to network users.

  • You must be logged on as a member of the Administrators group to create users or groups.


Chapter summary15

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • If a Windows computer is a member of a Windows NT or Active Directory domain, management of users and groups is mainly done at the domain level, and each user who logs onto the local computer will use a domain user account.

  • If a computer is a stand-alone computer or a member of a workgroup, users and groups will have to be managed on each computer.


Chapter summary16

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • In Windows 2000, security begins with turning on User Must Enter A User Name And Password, because if this setting is turned off, anyone with physical access to your computer can use it without entering a user name and password.

  • There’s a second security setting in Users and Passwords that’s important to enable—the setting on the Advanced tab under Secure Boot Settings. If checked, it requires users to press CTRL-ALT-DELETE before logging on.


Chapter summary17

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • In Windows XP, the User Accounts applet hides the complete list of users, using a simplistic reference to account types that is actually a reference to its group membership.

  • Windows XP Professional allows the currently logged-on user to create a password reset disk that can be used in case of a forgotten password.


Chapter summary18

Chapter Summary

Local Security Accounts in Windows Desktop OSs

  • Account policies for a local computer are settings stored on the computer that control how user accounts can interact with the computer.

  • When at work or school, you should secure your computer when you walk away from your desk.


Chapter summary19

Chapter Summary

Applying Security with the NTFS File System

  • Windows NT 4.0 supports NTFS version 4 (NTFS4), while Windows 2000 and Windows XP support NTFS version 5 (NTFS5). Both versions allow you to apply permissions to files and folders.

  • Each file and folder on an NTFS volume has an Access Control List for storing permissions. Each record in an ACL is an Access Control Entry (ACE).


Chapter summary20

Chapter Summary

Applying Security with the NTFS File System

  • Standard file and folder permissions are each comprised of one or more special permissions, but standard permissions are often all you need to use.

  • Standard file permissions include Full Control, Modify, Read and Execute, Read, and Write.

  • Standard folder permissions include Full Control, Modify, Read and Execute, Read, Write, and List Folder Contents.


Chapter summary21

Chapter Summary

Applying Security with the NTFS File System

  • A set of personal folders is created for each user who logs on locally, and if the boot volume is NTFS, Windows creates permissions on the folders that only allow the Administrator, the System, and that user to access the folders.

  • When accessing files and folders on an NTFS volume, an interactive user (sitting at the computer) must pass through two security "doors"—one for authentication, and another for authorization.


Chapter summary22

Chapter Summary

Applying Security with the NTFS File System

  • A user connecting over the network to a shared folder pointing to a folder on an NTFS volume must come through three doors: authentication to the computer, authorization to the share, and authorization to the NTFS file or folder.

  • An additional security feature, file and folder encryption, is available in Windows 2000 and Windows XP Professional through combining NTFS5 and a new component of these operating systems, the Encrypting File System (EFS).


Chapter summary23

Chapter Summary

Applying Security with the NTFS File System

  • The only person who can decrypt a file or folder is the person who encrypted it, or a member of a special group called recovery agents.

  • A local printer has a simple set of permissions: Print, Manage Printer, and Manage Documents.


Chapter summary24

Chapter Summary

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems

  • The most powerful protection against computer-based security threats is a combination of education, proactive behavior, and the use of protective technologies.

  • Any unusual computer event may indicate that your computer has been infected by a virus.

  • Unusual activity in any of your credit or savings accounts can indicate that you are a victim of identity theft.


Chapter summary25

Chapter Summary

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems

  • If you suspect a computer has become infected by a virus, but do not have an up-to-date virus scanner, you may connect to one of many web sites offering free online antivirus scans.

  • Logon failure may be the result a user name or password typo, or of exceeding the number of failed logon attempts configured in the Account Lockout Policy for a network or an individual computer. An administrator may need to modify the policy.


Chapter summary26

Chapter Summary

Troubleshooting Common Windows Security Problems

  • If the User Accounts applet shows “Unknown account type,” for a user it simply indicates that the user account belongs to a group that User Accounts does not recognize. Use the Users and Password node in Computer Management to view the account.


  • Login