FEBRUARY 1, 1917.
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FEBRUARY 1, 1917
GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR.
WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST.
ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917)
On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.
If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. . . .
You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.
Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.
Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916
POLITICAL CARTOON ON THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE
WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917
“THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.”
CONGRESS DECLARED WAR APRIL 6, 1917
“Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America; Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.”
EXCERPT FROM THE WAR DECLARATION
SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917
REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF 21-30 (LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE DRAFT
ABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL POPULATION
ABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES, CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS
COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION: CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON TO SPREAD PRO-WAR PROPAGANDA
LED BY JOURNALIST GEORGE CREEL
EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT DURING WWI
CIVIL LIBERTIES RESTRICTED DURING THE WAR
CIVIL LIBERTIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS THAT ARE PROTECTED IN THE BILL OF RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, HOWEVER IN TIMES OF CRISIS THEY HAVE BEEN RESTRICTED BY THE GOVERNMENT IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE LARGER GOALS
DURING WORLD WAR ONE, LAWS WERE PASSED THAT SEVERELY RESTRICTED PEOPLE’S RIGHTS WHO SPOKE OUT AGAINST THE WAR EFFORT
LED TO 6,000 ARRESTS AND OVER 1900 PROSECUTIONS WERE MADE UNDER THE LAWS
THE ESPIONAGE ACT OF 1917, LATER AMENDED AND CALLED THE SEDITION ACT OF 1918
SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.
SOME OF THE PEOPLE ARRESTED UNDER THESE LAWS. PLEASE SEE THE SPEAKER NOTES FOR DETAILS.
TWO WELL-KNOWN ANARCHISTS, EMMA GOLDMAN AND ALEXANDER BERKMAN CONVICTED OF CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE DRAFT LAW WERE SENTENCED TO TWO YEARS IN A PENITENTIARY AND FINED $10,000 EACH, JULY 9, 1917. THEY WERE LATER DEPORTED TO RUSSIA.
SCHENCK V. U.S.
THE SEDITION ACT MAY 16, 1918
SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States, or to promote the success of its enemies, or shall willfully make or convey false reports, or false statements, . . . or incite insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct . . . the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, or . . . shall willfully utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the Constitution of the United States, or the military or naval forces of the United States . . . or shall willfully display the flag of any foreign enemy, or shall willfully . . . urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production . . . or advocate, teach, defend, or suggest the doing of any of the acts or things in this section enumerated and whoever shall by word or act support or favor the cause of any country with which the United States is at war or by word or act oppose the cause of the United States therein, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both....
The Presidential Proclamation of April 19, 1918 defined persons as "alien enemies" men and women (whether naturalized citizens or not) born in Germany, Austria or the Turkish Empire; and women (regardless of birthplace) married to alien enemies.
Papers are from an American citizen married to a German.
County of Residence: Miami
City of Residence: Paola
Country of Origin: United States
City of Origin: Kansas
Maiden Name: Windler Date of Birth: 03/23/1873
ROSE PASTOR STOKES
SHE SENT A LETTER TO THE KANSAS CITY STAR THAT CLAIMED “NO GOVERNMENT WHICH IS FOR THE PROFITEERS CAN ALSO BE FOR THE PEOPLE, AND I AM FOR THE PEOPLE, WHILE THE GOVERNMENT IS FOR THE PROFITEERS.”
SHE WAS ARRESTED AND SENTENCED TO TEN YEARS IN JAIL UNDER THESE LAWS.
A HIGHER COURT LATER OVERTURNED THE CONVICTION.
HOW DID THE U.S. GOVERNMENT PAY FOR THE WAR?
INCOME TAX CREATED IN 1913
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
BONDS: THE GOVERNMENT BORROWS MONEY
WAR SAVING STAMPS: COST BETWEEN 25 CENTS AND $5, THE GOVERNMENT PRINTED BOOKLETS AND WHEN THEY WERE FULL THEY COULD BE TURNED IN FOR BONDS
THERE WERE FOUR MAJOR LIBERTY LOAN DRIVES WHICH AMASSED GREAT AMOUNTS OF MONEY FOR THE WAR EFFORT. PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE THE RED CROSS AND THE Y.M.C.A. ALSO HELD FUND RAISING EVENTS.
NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
WOMEN TOOK THE JOBS LEFT BEHIND BY THE MEN
NURSES CONTRIBUTED TO THE WAR EFFORT
AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS
HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY
ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s.
CUTTING DOWN TREES
BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE
DECEMBER 18, 1917 PASSED BY CONGRESS, RATIFIED BY THE STATES IN 1919, TOOK EFFECT IN 1920
Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Section 2. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress.
BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION 1917
PRESIDENT WILSON’S 14 POINTS
AMERICANS ENTERED THE FIGHTING JUST IN TIME TO STOP A MASSIVE GERMAN OFFENSIVE IN 1918
BATTLE FOR ARGONNE
“AT THE 11TH HOUR, OF THE 11TH MONTH, ON THE 11TH DAY”
NOVEMBER 11, 1918 WWI ENDS
Country Dead Wounded POW/MIA Total Mobilized
Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 7,020,000 7,800,000
Belgium 13,716 44,686 34,659 93,061 267,000
British Empire 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 3,190,235 8,904,467
Bulgaria 87,500 152,390 27,029 266,919 1,200,000
France 1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 6,160,800 8,410,000
Germany 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 7,142,558 11,000,000
Greece 5,000 21,000 1,000 27,000 230,000
Italy 650,000 947,000 600,000 2,197,000 5,615,000
Japan 300 907 3 1,210 800,000
Montenegro 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 50,000
Portugal 7,222 13,751 12,318 33,291 100,000
Romania 335,706 120,000 80,000 535,706 750,000
Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 12,000,000
Serbia 45,000 133,148 152,958 331,106 707,343
Turkey 325,000 400,000 250,000 975,000 2,850,000
US 116,516 204,002 0 320,518 4,734,991
TOTALS 8,528,831 21,189,154 7,746,419 37,464,404 65,418,801
THE FINANCIAL COSTS OF THE WAR
WILSON PROMOTED THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
SOME PEOPLE WERE SUSPICIOUS OF WILSON’S IDEAS FOR PEACE
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE “BIG FOUR”
GEORGE ORLANDO CLEMENCEAU WILSON
WANTED TO MAINTAIN TRADE RELATIONS WITH GERMANY BUT WANTED COLONIES
WANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY AND PREVENT FUTURE INVASION
WANTED LAND PROMISED DURING WWI
WANTED 14 POINTS AND FAIR PEACE FOR ALL
Table of Contents from actual treaty
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
ISSUES TO BE SETTLED
Articles 1-26 The Covenant of the League of Nations
Articles 27-30 Boundaries of Germany
Articles 31-117 Political Clauses for Europe
Articles 118-158 German Rights and Interests Outside Germany
Articles 159-213 Military, Naval and Air Clauses
Articles 214-226 Prisoners of War and Graves
Articles 227-230 Penalties
Articles 231-247 Reparations
Articles 248-263 Financial Clauses
Articles 264-312 Economic Clauses
Articles 313-320 Aerial Navigation
Articles 321-386 Ports, Waterways and Railways
Articles 387-399 Labor
Articles 400-427 Procedure
Articles 428-433 Guarantees
Articles 434-440 Miscellaneous Provisions
TREATY OF VERSAILLES,
TREATY OF VERSAILLES,
GERMAN ARMAMENT LIMITATIONS
GERMAN WAR GUILT CLAUSE
The Allied and Associated Governments confirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their national have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
THE BLACK AREAS WERE CONTROLLED BY GERMANY PRIOR TO WWI, THE TREATY MADE THEM MANDATES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
ONLY FOUR COUNTRIES WERE INDEPENDENT: ETHIOPIA, LIBERIA, EGYPT, AND MOROCCO.
ALL OTHER TERRITORY WAS DIVIDED BETWEEN BRITAIN, FRANCE, SPAIN, PORTUGAL, BELGIUM, AND ITALY
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS BROKEN APART AND SEVERAL NEW INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES EMERGED:
SYRIA, JORDAN, SAUDI ARABIA AND IRAQ
ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC WERE ALSO DIVIDED UP
TREATY OF VERSAILLES SIGNED JUNE 28, 1919
THE SENATE REFUSED TO RATIFY THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
WILSON NEGOTIATED THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES WITHOUT ANY INPUT FROM THE SENATE WHICH LED TO BITTERNESS. CABOT AND OTHERS ARGUED AGAINST JOINING AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION THAT MIGHT HAVE VETO POWER OVER U.S. ACTIONS.
SENATOR HENRY CABOT LODGE LED THE FIGHT AGAINST THE TREATY
CARTOON SHOWS WILSON TRYING TO PROTECT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS FROM THE SENATE.
Cabot speech against joining League
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
SINCE THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN, THE LEAGUE BECAME INEFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING FUTURE WARS
WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF WWI IN AMERICA?