Cognitive behavior therapy
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Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Started by Albert Ellis in 1955-Grandfather of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Combination of Humanistic & Behavioral Therapy to help deal with issues from past Ellis had chronic renal problems since 9 and diabetes by 40

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Cognitive Behavior Therapy

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Cognitive behavior therapy

Cognitive Behavior Therapy


Rational emotive behavior therapy

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

  • Started by Albert Ellis in 1955-Grandfather of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

  • Combination of Humanistic & Behavioral Therapy to help deal with issues from past

    • Ellis had chronic renal problems since 9 and diabetes by 40

    • Exaggerated fear of public speaking

    • Shy around women


Rational emotive behavioral therapy rebt

Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT)

  • Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing

  • Assumes that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship

  • Is highly didactic, very directive, and concerned as much with thinking as with feeling

  • Teaches that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations


Assumptions of rebt

Assumptions of REBT

  • People contribute to their own psychological problems & symptoms by way they interpret events & situations

  • Reorganization of one’s self-statements will result in reorganization of one’s behaviors

  • Operant conditioning, modeling & behavioral rehearsal applied to thinking & internal dialogue


Commonalities between all cognitive behavior approaches

Commonalities between all Cognitive Behavior Approaches

  • Collaborative relationship between therapist & client

  • Premise psychological distress is largely function of disturbance in cognitive processes

  • Focus on changing cognitions to produce desired changes in affect & behavior

  • Generally time-limited & educational treatment focusing on specific & structured target problems


Roots of rebt

Roots of REBT

  • Epictetus-Greek Stoic Philosopher-1st century A.D.-”People are disturbed not by things, by the view which they take of them.”

  • Horney’s (1950) “Tyranny of the shoulds”

  • Adler-our emotional reactions & lifestyle are associated with our basic beliefs & therefore cognitively created

    • role of social interest in determining psychological health

    • Importance of goals, purposes, values & meaning in human existence

    • Focus on active teaching

    • Use of persuasive methods

    • Giving of live demonstrations in audiences


The therapeutic process

The Therapeutic Process

  • Therapy is seen as an educational process

  • Clients learn:

    • To identify and dispute irrational beliefs that are maintained byself-indoctrination

    • To replace ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitions

    • To stop absolutistic thinking, blaming, and repeating false beliefs


View of human nature

View of Human Nature

  • We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking

  • We have the biological and cultural tendency to think crookedly and to needlessly disturb ourselves

  • Humans are self-talking, self-evaluating & self-sustaining

  • We develop emotional & behavioral problems when we mistake simple preferences (love, approval, success) for dire needs

  • We learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talk

  • We have the capacity to change our cognitive, emotive, and behavioral processes


Emotional disturbance

Emotional Disturbance

  • Through autosuggestion & self-repetition we install & maintain self-defeating beliefs-irrational dogmas & superstitions self-created plus irrational beliefs from significant others

  • Blame is core of emotional disturbance-so to recover stop blaming self & others

  • We escalate desires & preferences into dogmatic & absolutist “shoulds, musts, oughts, demands, commands-which are irrational beliefs which need to be changed


Irrational ideas

Irrational Ideas

  • Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior

  • Some examples:

    • “I must have love or approval from all the significant people in my life.”

    • “I must perform important tasks competently and perfectly.”

    • “If I don’t get what I want, it’s terrible, and I can’t stand it.”


A b c theory of personality

A-B-C Theory of Personality

  • A = existence of fact, event, behavior, attitude of individual

  • B = person’s belief

  • C = emotional & behavioral consequence or reaction of individual

  • D = disputing intervention-challenge beliefs

  • E = effective philosophy after disputing

  • F = new set of feelings

  • Human beings are largely responsible for creating their own emotional reactions & disturbances

  • Goal: show people how to change irrational beliefs that directly “cause” disturbed emotional consequences


The a b c theory

The A-B-C theory


D disputing intervention

D = disputing intervention

  • Challenges irrational beliefs

  • Use principles of logic-destroy unrealistic, unverifiable hypotheses

  • Detect~detect the “shoulds”, “I musts” “awfulizing” “self-downing”

  • Debate~learn to logically & empirically question beliefs-to argue self out of them

  • Discriminate~irrational-self-defeating from rational-self-helping beliefs


Steps to change dysfunctional living

Steps to Change Dysfunctional Living

  • Acknowledge we are responsible for creating own emotional problems

  • Accepting we have ability to change disturbances significantly

  • Recognize emotional problems stem from irrational beliefs

  • Clearly perceive these beliefs

  • Seeing value of disputing self-defeating beliefs

  • Accepting fact to change we must work hard in emotive & behavioral ways to counteract irrational beliefs & dysfunctional feelings and behaviors

  • Use the REBT methods rest of our lives


Steps in rebt therapeutic process

Steps in REBT Therapeutic Process

  • Show client incorporated irrational beliefs-teach how to separate irrational from the rational beliefs-engage in activities which are not self-defeating

  • Demonstrate to client keeping emotional disturbance active by illogical thinking

  • Help client to modify thinking-recognize vicious cycle of self-blaming

  • Challenge clients to develop rational philosophy of life-dispute core irrational thinking-teach how to replace with rational beliefs


Methods used in rebt

Methods used in REBT

  • Disputing irrational beliefs

  • Doing cognitive homework

  • Changing one’s language

  • Using humor

  • Rational emotive imagery

  • Role playing

  • Shame-attacking exercices

  • Use of force & vigor

  • Desensitization

  • Skills training

  • Assertiveness training


Aaron beck s cognitive therapy ct

Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (CT)

  • Insight-focused therapy

  • Emphasizes changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs

  • Theoretical Assumptions

    • People’s internal communication is accessible to introspection

    • Clients’ beliefs have highly personal meanings

    • These meanings can be discovered by the client rather than being taught or interpreted by the therapist


Cognitive distortions identified in ct

Cognitive Distortions identified in CT

  • Arbitrary references-catastrophizing

  • Selective abstraction-total context missed

  • Overgeneralization-extreme belief based on single episode

  • Magnification & minimization

  • Personalization-relate external event to self

  • Labeling & mislabeling-identity based on imperfections or mistakes in the past

  • Polarized thinking-all or nothing at all thinking


Theory goals principles of ct

Theory, Goals & Principles of CT

  • Basic theory:

    • To understand the nature of an emotional episode or disturbance it is essential to focus on the cognitive content of an individual’s reaction to the upsetting event or stream of thoughts

  • Goals:

    • To change the way clients think by using their automatic thoughts to reach the core schemata and begin to introduce the idea of schema restructuring

  • Principles:

    • Automatic thoughts: personalized notions that are triggered by particular stimuli that lead to emotional responses


Ct s cognitive triad

CT’s Cognitive Triad

  • Pattern that triggers depression:

    • 1. Client holds negative view of themselves

    • 2. Selective abstraction: Client has tendency to interpret experiences in a negative manner

    • 3. Client has a gloomy vision and projections about the future


Donald meichenbaum s cognitive behavior modification cbm

Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behavior Modification (CBM)

  • Focus:

    • Client’s self-verbalizations or self-statements

  • Premise:

    • As a prerequisite to behavior change, clients must notice how they think,

    • feel, and behave, and what impact they have on others

  • Basic assumption:

    • Distressing emotions are typically the result of maladaptive thoughts


Meichenbaum s cbm

Meichenbaum’s CBM

  • Self-instructional therapy focus:

    • Trains clients to modify the instructions they give to themselves so that they can cope

    • Emphasis is on acquiring practical coping skills

  • Cognitive structure:

    • The organizing aspect of thinking, which seems to monitor and direct the choice of thoughts

    • The “executive processor,” which “holds the blueprints of thinking” that determine when to continue, interrupt, or change thinking


Behavior change coping cbm

Behavior Change & Coping (CBM)

  • 3 Phases of Behavior Change

    • 1.Self-observation

    • 2.Starting a new internal dialogue

    • 3.Learning new skills

  • Coping skills programs – Stress inoculation training (3 phase model)

    • 1.The conceptual phase

    • 2.Skills acquisition and rehearsal phase

    • 3.Application and follow-through phase


Constructivist narrative perspective cnp

Constructivist Narrative Perspective (CNP)

  • Focuses on the stories people tell about themselves and others about significant events in their lives

  • Therapeutic task:

    • Help clients appreciate how they construct their realities and how they author their own stories


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