The Evidence for Evolution
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 56

The Evidence for Evolution PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 135 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Evidence for Evolution. Evidence #1. Fossil Record. Evidence of Evolution #1 – Fossil Record. Fossils are the preserved remains of once-living organisms Rock fossils are created when three events occur organism buried in sediment calcium in bone or other hard tissue mineralizes

Download Presentation

The Evidence for Evolution

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The evidence for evolution

The Evidence for Evolution


Evidence 1

Evidence #1

Fossil Record


Evidence of evolution 1 fossil record

Evidence of Evolution #1 – Fossil Record

  • Fossils are the preserved remains of once-living organisms

  • Rock fossils are created when three events occur

    • organism buried in sediment

    • calcium in bone or other hard tissue mineralizes

    • surrounding sediment hardens to form rock


Fossil evidence of evolution

Fossil Evidence of Evolution


Fossil evidence of evolution1

Fossil Evidence of Evolution

Fossil

records

document

the course

of life through

time


Fossil evidence of evolution2

Fossil Evidence of Evolution

  • Fossils document evolutionary transition

  • The oldest known bird fossil is the Archaeopteryx

  • It is intermediate between bird and dinosaur

  • Possesses some ancestral traits and some traits of present day birds

  • Archaeopteryx was first found in 1859


Fossil evidence of evolution3

Fossil Evidence of Evolution

Fossil of Archaeopteryx


Fossil evidence of evolution4

Fossil Evidence of Evolution

Recent discoveries

  • Four-legged aquatic mammal

    • Important link in the evolution of whales and dolphins from land-dwelling, hoofed ancestors

  • Fossil snake with legs

  • Tiktaalik: a species that bridged the gap between fish and the first amphibian

  • Oysters: small curved shells to large flat shells


Fossil evidence of evolution5

Fossil Evidence of Evolution

Whale “missing links”


Fossil evidence of evolution6

Fossil Evidence of Evolution

Evolutionary change in body size and toe reduction of horses


Fossil record activity

Fossil Record Activity

  • Gradualism – slow gradual change in a population over time

    • Uniformitarianism; constant, small changes in the environment result in slow changes in the population

  • Punctuated Equilibrium – fast change in a population in a short period of time (punctuated) followed by little/no change over a long period of time (equilibrium)

    • Mass extinctions are a cause of the quick change in a population


Adaptive radiation

Adaptive Radiation

  • A single species has evolved, through natural selection and other processes, into diverse forms that live in different ways

  • An example is the different varieties of finches that were found on the different islands that Darwin visited. Each variety was perfectly fit for the different islands’ environments.

  • However, they all descended from a common ancestor


Activities

Activities

  • Fossil Record Activity

  • Analysis of phylogenetic trees and adaptive radiation


Evidence 2

Evidence #2

Morphology


Di vergent evolution

DivergentEvolution

  • when one species becomes many different species to fill available niches

    • Adaptive Radiation: periods of evolution in which organisms form new species due to adaptations that allow them to fill different niches in the community. i.e. Darwin’s Finches on the Galapagos Islands

    • Homologous Structures


Evidence for evolution 2 morphology

Evidence for Evolution #2 – Morphology

  • Homologous Structures -Similarity in structure due to common decent (had a common ancestor), regardless of the different environments in which they now live; same structure, different function

    i.e.- human hands, whale fins, bat wings


Evidence for evolution 2 morphology1

Evidence for Evolution #2 – Morphology


Evidence for evolution 2 morphology2

Evidence for Evolution #2 – Morphology


Con vergent evolution

Convergent Evolution

  • the appearance of apparently similar structures/ features in organisms of different lines of descent.

    • Analogous structures

    • Birds & Bats

    • Dolphins & Sharks

    • Penguins & Seals


Evidence for evolution 2 morphology3

Evidence for Evolution #2 - Morphology

  • Analogous Structures - Similar structures based on naturally selected adaptations for the same function in different organisms but that did NOT result from a common ancestor

  • i.e – wings in birds, bats, insects


The evidence for evolution

Analogous Examples


Convergent evolution

Convergent Evolution

Convergence among fast-swimming predators


Mimicry

Mimicry

  • A phenomenon in which an individual gains an advantage by looking like the individuals of a different species.

  • “A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic.”


The evidence for evolution

Monarch

Viceroy


The evidence for evolution

Yellow Jacket

Sand Wasp


The evidence for evolution

Dronefly

Honey Bee


The evidence for evolution

Sryphid Fly

Paper Wasp


The evidence for evolution

Coral Snake

Colubrid Snake


The evidence for evolution

Mantid

Orchid


The evidence for evolution

Catkin (plant)

Caterpillar


Evidence for evolution 2 morphology4

Evidence for Evolution #2 - Morphology

  • Vestigial Structures - Remnants of once useful structures (in ancestral species) but that no longer serve a purpose in this specific species (although could still be useful in similar species)

    i.e. – human appendix, hind limbs of snakes and whales


The evidence for evolution

Vestigial Examples


The evidence for evolution

Vestigial structures of a whale


The evidence for evolution

Blind Salamander


The evidence for evolution

Blind Cave Fish


The evidence for evolution

  • Feel your gums above your canine teeth

  • vestigial roots


Activity

Activity

  • Homologous structures coloring assignment and questions


Evidence 3

Evidence #3

Embryology


The evidence for evolution

Dolphin Embryo


The evidence for evolution

Human Embryo

  • Figure 2.4.1. Cat and human embryos in the tailbud stage. A cat embryo is shown on top, a human embryo below. Note the post-anal tail in both, positioned at the lower left below the head of each. The human embryo is about 32 days old.

Cat Embryo


The evidence for evolution

OOPS!


Activity1

Activity

  • Embryology Video and video questions


Evidence 4

Evidence #4

DNA Comparison


Evidence of comparative dna

Evidence of Comparative DNA

  • All creatures on Earth are descendents of a common ancestor.

  • Therefore:

    • we have the same mode of inheritance

      • Genes on chromosomes made of DNA

    • Why we have similar nucleotide and gene sequences


Evidence of comparative dna1

Evidence of Comparative DNA


Evidence of comparative dna2

Evidence of Comparative DNA


Activity2

Activity

  • DNA comparison WS (need codon chart)


  • Login