First They Came…Martin Niemoller. First they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Socialist. Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Trade Unionist.
Instructions by Reinhard Heydrich, on Policy and Operations Concerning the Jews in the Occupied Territories, September 21, 1939
Berlin, September 21, 1939 To Chiefs of all Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police. Subject: Jewish Question in Occupied Territory for the time being, the first prerequisite for the final aim is the concentration of the Jews from the countryside into the larger cities. This is to be carried out speedily.
As far as possible, the areas…are to be cleared of Jews; at least the aim should be to establish only few cities of concentration so as to facilitate subsequent measures. In this connection, it should be borne in mind that only cities which are rail junctions, or at least located on railroad lines, should be selected as concentration points. On principle, Jewish communities of less than 500 persons are to be dissolved and transferred to the nearest concentration center.
6 Concerning the Jews in the Occupied Territories, September 21, 1939
Nazi ghettos Concerning the Jews in the Occupied Territories, September 21, 1939 were a preliminary step in the annihilation of the Jews, as the ghettos became transition areas, used as collection points for deportation to concentration & death camps
New arrivals at the Death camps were given postcards to send to their friends.
The Jews were told that they were going to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East.
The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were only fed a 100 calories a day .
In some Ghettos the Jews had to purchase their own train tickets.
A Human being needs 2400 calories a day to maintain their weight
They were told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans.
The SS publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of resistance
Hungry people are easier to control
He was executed
Entrance to Terezin camp. The gate bears the motto just as horrifying as any other concentration camp. For example, it was illegal to write letters to anyone outside of the ghetto. On January 10, 1942 nine people were hanged, each accused of smuggling a letter. “Arbeit Macht Frei”
(“Work makes one free”)
German Jews, wearing identification tags, before deportation to Theresienstadt. (Wiesbaden, Germany, August 1942)
Departure of a train of German Jews being deported to Theresienstadt. (Hanau, Germany, May 30, 1942)
The arrival of Jews at the Theresienstadt. (Hanau, Germany, May 30, 1942)Terezin (Theresienstadt) Ghetto, near Prague,Czechoslovakia.
Prisoners were sometimes allowed to bring a few possessions with them, but often what they brought was immediately taken away by the prison guards.
A transport of Jewish prisoners marches through the snow from the Bauschovitz train station to Theresienstadt.
(Czechoslovakia, 1942) Even in the worse weather, young and old alike were forced to march from the train station to the Terezin ghetto.
(Czechoslovakia, February 1944)
Dutch Jews who have recently arrived in the Theresienstadt ghetto. Czechoslovakia, February 1944.
Women prisoners lie on thin mattresses on the floor of a barracks in the women's camp in the Theresienstadt ghetto. Czechoslovakia, between 1941 and 1945. The living conditions were quite miserable, and were usually very crowded.
Sicknesses spread quickly among the people.
Preparation of food in the Theresienstadt ghetto. (Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, between 1941 and 1945.)
The food for the prisoners was very poor quality and was prepared in unsanitary conditions. Food rations were very small.
Prisoners wait for food rations. Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia, between 1941 and 1945. Prisoners at Terezin were always hungry. Thousands died of malnutrition.
Forced laborers at work in a tailor's workshop. Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia, between 1941 and 1945. Men, women and children were forced to work for long hours. However, the children at Terezin were allowed to go to school. Adult prisoners acted as their teachers, and tried hard to make life as normal as possible for the children.
Crematorium at Terezin Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia, between 1941 and 1945.
The Nazis build crematoriums to dispose of the dead. The Nazis tried to hide the fact that they killed millions of people. Red Cross Inspectors would never have seen this place.
Here is a layout of the town. The ghetto is area is where most of the prisoners lived in barracks. The prison and internment camp were where political prisoners and Jewish resisters were held.
When a new child comes
Everything seems strange to him
What, on the ground I have to lie?
Eat black potatoes? Not I!
I’ve got to stay? It’s dirty here!
The floor—why, look, it’s dirt, I fear!
And I’m supposed to sleep on it?
I’ll get all dirty!
Here the sound of shouting, cries,
And oh, so many flies.
Everyone knows flies carry disease.
Oooh, something bit me! Wasn’t that a bedbug?
Here in Terezin, life is hell
And when I’ll go home again, I can’t yet tell.
The last, the very last,
So richly, brightly, dazzlingly yellow.
Perhaps if the sun’s tears would sing
Against a white stone….
Such, such a yellow
Is carried lightly ‘way up high.
It went away I’m sure because it wished to
Kiss the world good-bye.
For seven weeks I’ve live in here,
Penned up inside this ghetto.
But I have found what I love here.
The dandelions call to me
And the white chestnut branches in the court.
Only I never saw another butterfly.
That butterfly was the last one.
Butterflies don’t live here,
In the ghetto.
-Pavel Friedman April 6, 1942
I am a Jew and will be a Jew forever.
Even if I should die from hunger,
Never will I submit.
I will always fight for my people,
On my honor.
I will never be ashamed of them,
I give my word.
I am proud of my people,
How dignified they are.
Even though I am suppressed,
I will always come back to life.