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VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO. Dragoslava Stojiljkovic, Ph.D.Mech.Eng. Facult y of Mechanical Engineering Fuels and Combustion Lab. COUNTRY PROFILE. Territory 102.173 s.km Population 8.06 millions GDP 1,450 USD. ENERGY CONSUMPTION. ENERGY IMPORT.

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vehicle fuels and emissions in serbia and montenegro

VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Dragoslava Stojiljkovic, Ph.D.Mech.Eng.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fuels and Combustion Lab.

country profile
COUNTRY PROFILE
  • Territory 102.173 s.km
  • Population 8.06 millions
  • GDP 1,450 USD
refinery
REFINERY
  • Two refineries:
    • Oil Refinery Novi Sad(ORNS)
    • Oil Refinery Pancevo (ORP)
  • Total capacity
    • 7,8 Mt till 1999. year (ORNS – 3 Mt, ORP – 4,8 Mt)
    • 6,6 Mt after 1999. year (ORNS – 1,8 Mt, ORP – 4,8 Mt)
fuel distribution
FUEL DISTRIBUTION
  • NIS (Jugopetrol & Naftagas)
    • 500+1600 (internal) pump stations
    • 8 filling stations for fuel distribution
  • Beopetrol (Lukoil)
    • 200 pump stations
    • 10 filling stations for fuel distribution
  • Jugopetrol Kotor
fuel quality legislation
FUEL QUALITY LEGISLATION
  • Regulation for technical and all other requests for liquid fuel produced from oil – Off. Journal of SRJ 64/2000
  • Regulation for technical and all other requests for liquid fuel produced from oil – Off. Journal of Serbia and Montenegro 51/2004
products gasoline
PRODUCTS - GASOLINE
  • Leaded Gasoline
    • Normal MB 86
    • Regular MB 92
    • Premium MB 95
    • Super MB 98
  • Unleaded Gasoline
    • Euro Premium BMB 95
    • Euro Regular BMB 92
    • Premium BMB 95
    • Regular BMB 92
products diesel oil
PRODUCTS – DIESEL OIL
  • Diesel Oil
    • Diesel Oil D2
    • Diesel Oil D2S
    • Diesel Oil D1E
  • Euro Diesel Oil
    • Euro Diesel Oil
    • Euro Diesel F
leaded gasoline mb 95
LEADED GASOLINE MB 95
  • RON min 95
  • MON min 83
  • lead content (mg/l) max 400
  • density at 15oC (kg/m3) recorded
  • benzene content (% (v/v)) max 5
  • sulphur content (mg/kg) max 1000
  • oxygen content (% (m/m)) max 2,7
leaded gasoline mb 9514
LEADED GASOLINE MB 95
  • distillation
    • E100 (% (v/v)) 46,0 - 71,0
    • E150 (% (v/v)) min 75,0
    • FBP (oC) max 210
    • Residue (% (v/v)) max 2
  • vapor pressure (kPa)
    • winter (01.10.-31.03.) 50,0 - 80,0
    • summer (01.04.-30.09) 45,0 - 60,0
unleaded gasoline bmb 95
UNLEADED GASOLINE BMB 95
  • according JUS EN 228
  • except some characteristics till 31.12.2005.
  • MON min 83
  • lead content (mg/l) max 13
  • density at 15oC (kg/m3) max 780
  • benzene content (% (v/v)) max 5
  • sulphur content (mg/kg) max 650
diesel oil d2
DIESEL OIL D2
  • density (kg/m3) max 860
  • distillation - 95% (v/v) point (oC) max 375
  • viscosity (mm2/s) 2,0 - 9,0
  • sulphur content (mg/kg) max 10000
  • cetane index min 45
  • water content (mg/kg) max 500
euro diesel
EURO DIESEL
  • according JUS EN 590
  • sulphur content (ppm) max 350
fuel quality control
FUEL QUALITY CONTROL
  • at the exit from the refineries
  • several laboratories for fuel quality control
  • the special inspection for fuel quality control in the Ministry of Trade
  • the problem lies in the chain between the refineries and customer tank – many forbiden operations take place during the transportation and at the pump station
fuel price serbia
FUEL PRICE (SERBIA)
  • leaded gasoline MB95 74,10 din/l
  • leaded gasoline MB98 82,50 din/l
  • unleaded gasoline BMB95 74,10 din/l
  • diesel fuel D2 61,90 din/l
  • euro diesel 67,00 din/l
    • 1 euro = 83 din
    • 1 USD = 68 din
fuel price montenegro
FUEL PRICE (MONTENEGRO)
  • leaded gasoline MB95 1,02 euro
  • unleaded gasoline BMB95 1,04 euro
  • diesel fuel D2 0,88 euro
  • euro diesel 0,92 euro
vehicles
VEHICLES
  • total number 1.801.000
  • passenger car 1.510.000
    • gasoline 1.057.000
    • diesel 453.000
  • LDV 146.000
  • HDV 133.000
  • bus 12.000
vehicles aging
VEHICLES AGING
  • restricted import of vehicles over six years
vehicle exhaust emission control
VEHICLE EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL
  • control of exhaust emission is the responsibility of the vehicle technical control
  • vehicle tests are not very rigorous
  • 500 stations for vehicle testing
  • exhaust test failed about 5 % of total number of tested vehicles (officially)
transport problems
TRANSPORT - PROBLEMS
  • old vehicle fleet
  • inadequate maintenance of vehicles
  • widespread use of old vehicles without catalytic converters
  • poor enforcement of the Regulation on Exhaust Emissions from Motor Vehicles
  • insufficient use of gas and alternative fuels
  • dominant road transport
  • insufficient road network, especially for the increasing volume of traffic
air quality serbia
AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)
  • Ministry of Science and Environment – Directorate for Environmental Protection is responsible institution
    • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management
    • Ministry of Economy
    • Ministry of Health
    • Ministry for Capital Investments
    • Ministry for Mining and Energy
    • Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Services
air quality serbia26
AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)
  • Directorate for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development (Vojvodina)
  • Institute for Nature Protection
  • Hydro-Meteorology Institute
  • Public Health Institutes
air quality serbia27
AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)
  • Legal acts
    • Law on environmental protection (Off. Jour. Of RS 135/04)
    • Law on IPCC
    • Law on environmental impact assessment
    • Regulations
air quality montenegro
AIR QUALITY (MONTENEGRO)
  • Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning
    • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management
    • Ministry of Economy
    • Ministry of Health
    • Ministry of Transportation
    • Ministry of Tourism
air quality
AIR QUALITY
  • data od annual emission of pollutants in ambient air from transport are not available
  • assumption:
    • road transport accounts for 80 dB noise level, 90 % of CO, 80 % of benzene, 50 % of NOx, 50 % of Pb, 10 % of NO2, 40 % of HC, 15 % of CO2
conclusions fuel quality
CONCLUSIONS – FUEL QUALITY
  • Reconstruction of refineries
  • Liberalization of the automotive fuels market
  • Strengthening the inspection
  • Strengthening of the non-governmental laboratories
  • Modernization of the laboratories
  • Adoption of new standards
  • Adopt the year for bans use of leaded gasoline
  • Adoption of the programme for promotion of environment friendly fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel
conclusions vehicle emiision
CONCLUSIONS – VEHICLE EMIISION
  • Improve the maintenance of vehicles
  • Change the structure of vehicle aging through different programme
  • Strengthening the control of exhaust emission as a part of vehicle technical control
  • Improve road transport
  • Adoption the emission limit values for motor vehicles according to the Directives (EU)
conclusions air quality
CONCLUSIONS – AIR QUALITY
  • Harmonization of the emission and imission regulation with the EU
  • Upgrade the monitoring system of air pollution from transport
  • Modernization of the laboratories and network
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