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VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO. Dragoslava Stojiljkovic, Ph.D.Mech.Eng. Facult y of Mechanical Engineering Fuels and Combustion Lab. COUNTRY PROFILE. Territory102.173 s.km Population8.06 millions GDP1,450 USD. ENERGY CONSUMPTION. ENERGY IMPORT.

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VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

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Vehicle fuels and emissions in serbia and montenegro l.jpg

VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Dragoslava Stojiljkovic, Ph.D.Mech.Eng.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fuels and Combustion Lab.


Country profile l.jpg

COUNTRY PROFILE

  • Territory102.173 s.km

  • Population8.06 millions

  • GDP1,450 USD


Energy consumption l.jpg

ENERGY CONSUMPTION


Energy import l.jpg

ENERGY IMPORT


Crude oil production l.jpg

CRUDE OIL- PRODUCTION


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LIQUID FUELS - CONSUMPTION


Transport fuel cosumption l.jpg

TRANSPORT – FUEL COSUMPTION


Refinery l.jpg

REFINERY

  • Two refineries:

    • Oil Refinery Novi Sad(ORNS)

    • Oil Refinery Pancevo (ORP)

  • Total capacity

    • 7,8 Mt till 1999. year (ORNS – 3 Mt, ORP – 4,8 Mt)

    • 6,6 Mt after 1999. year (ORNS – 1,8 Mt, ORP – 4,8 Mt)


Fuel distribution l.jpg

FUEL DISTRIBUTION

  • NIS (Jugopetrol & Naftagas)

    • 500+1600 (internal) pump stations

    • 8 filling stations for fuel distribution

  • Beopetrol (Lukoil)

    • 200 pump stations

    • 10 filling stations for fuel distribution

  • Jugopetrol Kotor


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FUEL QUALITY LEGISLATION

  • Regulation for technical and all other requests for liquid fuel produced from oil – Off. Journal of SRJ 64/2000

  • Regulation for technical and all other requests for liquid fuel produced from oil – Off. Journal of Serbia and Montenegro 51/2004


Products gasoline l.jpg

PRODUCTS - GASOLINE

  • Leaded Gasoline

    • Normal MB 86

    • Regular MB 92

    • Premium MB 95

    • Super MB 98

  • Unleaded Gasoline

    • Euro Premium BMB 95

    • Euro Regular BMB 92

    • Premium BMB 95

    • Regular BMB 92


Products diesel oil l.jpg

PRODUCTS – DIESEL OIL

  • Diesel Oil

    • Diesel Oil D2

    • Diesel Oil D2S

    • Diesel Oil D1E

  • Euro Diesel Oil

    • Euro Diesel Oil

    • Euro Diesel F


Leaded gasoline mb 95 l.jpg

LEADED GASOLINE MB 95

  • RONmin 95

  • MONmin 83

  • lead content (mg/l)max 400

  • density at 15oC (kg/m3)recorded

  • benzene content (% (v/v))max 5

  • sulphur content (mg/kg)max 1000

  • oxygen content (% (m/m))max 2,7


Leaded gasoline mb 9514 l.jpg

LEADED GASOLINE MB 95

  • distillation

    • E100 (% (v/v))46,0 - 71,0

    • E150 (% (v/v))min 75,0

    • FBP (oC) max 210

    • Residue (% (v/v))max 2

  • vapor pressure (kPa)

    • winter (01.10.-31.03.)50,0 - 80,0

    • summer (01.04.-30.09)45,0 - 60,0


Unleaded gasoline bmb 95 l.jpg

UNLEADED GASOLINE BMB 95

  • according JUS EN 228

  • except some characteristics till 31.12.2005.

  • MONmin 83

  • lead content (mg/l)max 13

  • density at 15oC (kg/m3)max 780

  • benzene content (% (v/v))max 5

  • sulphur content (mg/kg)max 650


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DIESEL OIL D2

  • density (kg/m3)max 860

  • distillation - 95% (v/v) point (oC)max 375

  • viscosity (mm2/s)2,0 - 9,0

  • sulphur content (mg/kg)max 10000

  • cetane indexmin 45

  • water content (mg/kg)max 500


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EURO DIESEL

  • according JUS EN 590

  • sulphur content (ppm)max 350


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FUEL QUALITY CONTROL

  • at the exit from the refineries

  • several laboratories for fuel quality control

  • the special inspection for fuel quality control in the Ministry of Trade

  • the problem lies in the chain between the refineries and customer tank – many forbiden operations take place during the transportation and at the pump station


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FUEL PRICE (SERBIA)

  • leaded gasolineMB9574,10 din/l

  • leaded gasolineMB9882,50 din/l

  • unleaded gasoline BMB9574,10 din/l

  • diesel fuel D261,90 din/l

  • euro diesel67,00 din/l

    • 1 euro = 83 din

    • 1 USD = 68 din


Fuel price montenegro l.jpg

FUEL PRICE (MONTENEGRO)

  • leaded gasolineMB951,02 euro

  • unleaded gasoline BMB951,04 euro

  • diesel fuel D20,88 euro

  • euro diesel0,92 euro


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VEHICLES

  • total number1.801.000

  • passenger car1.510.000

    • gasoline1.057.000

    • diesel453.000

  • LDV146.000

  • HDV133.000

  • bus12.000


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VEHICLES AGING

  • restricted import of vehicles over six years


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VEHICLE EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL

  • control of exhaust emission is the responsibility of the vehicle technical control

  • vehicle tests are not very rigorous

  • 500 stations for vehicle testing

  • exhaust test failed about 5 % of total number of tested vehicles (officially)


Transport problems l.jpg

TRANSPORT - PROBLEMS

  • old vehicle fleet

  • inadequate maintenance of vehicles

  • widespread use of old vehicles without catalytic converters

  • poor enforcement of the Regulation on Exhaust Emissions from Motor Vehicles

  • insufficient use of gas and alternative fuels

  • dominant road transport

  • insufficient road network, especially for the increasing volume of traffic


Air quality serbia l.jpg

AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)

  • Ministry of Science and Environment – Directorate for Environmental Protection is responsible institution

    • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management

    • Ministry of Economy

    • Ministry of Health

    • Ministry for Capital Investments

    • Ministry for Mining and Energy

    • Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Services


Air quality serbia26 l.jpg

AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)

  • Directorate for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development (Vojvodina)

  • Institute for Nature Protection

  • Hydro-Meteorology Institute

  • Public Health Institutes


Air quality serbia27 l.jpg

AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)

  • Legal acts

    • Law on environmental protection (Off. Jour. Of RS 135/04)

    • Law on IPCC

    • Law on environmental impact assessment

    • Regulations


Air quality montenegro l.jpg

AIR QUALITY (MONTENEGRO)

  • Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning

    • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management

    • Ministry of Economy

    • Ministry of Health

    • Ministry of Transportation

    • Ministry of Tourism


Air quality l.jpg

AIR QUALITY

  • data od annual emission of pollutants in ambient air from transport are not available

  • assumption:

    • road transport accounts for 80 dB noise level, 90 % of CO, 80 % of benzene, 50 % of NOx, 50 % of Pb, 10 % of NO2, 40 % of HC, 15 % of CO2


Conclusions fuel quality l.jpg

CONCLUSIONS – FUEL QUALITY

  • Reconstruction of refineries

  • Liberalization of the automotive fuels market

  • Strengthening the inspection

  • Strengthening of the non-governmental laboratories

  • Modernization of the laboratories

  • Adoption of new standards

  • Adopt the year for bans use of leaded gasoline

  • Adoption of the programme for promotion of environment friendly fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel


Conclusions vehicle emiision l.jpg

CONCLUSIONS – VEHICLE EMIISION

  • Improve the maintenance of vehicles

  • Change the structure of vehicle aging through different programme

  • Strengthening the control of exhaust emission as a part of vehicle technical control

  • Improve road transport

  • Adoption the emission limit values for motor vehicles according to the Directives (EU)


Conclusions air quality l.jpg

CONCLUSIONS – AIR QUALITY

  • Harmonization of the emission and imission regulation with the EU

  • Upgrade the monitoring system of air pollution from transport

  • Modernization of the laboratories and network


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