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VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO. Dragoslava Stojiljkovic, Ph.D.Mech.Eng. Facult y of Mechanical Engineering Fuels and Combustion Lab. COUNTRY PROFILE. Territory102.173 s.km Population8.06 millions GDP1,450 USD. ENERGY CONSUMPTION. ENERGY IMPORT.

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VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

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VEHICLE FUELS AND EMISSIONS IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Dragoslava Stojiljkovic, Ph.D.Mech.Eng.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fuels and Combustion Lab.


COUNTRY PROFILE

  • Territory102.173 s.km

  • Population8.06 millions

  • GDP1,450 USD


ENERGY CONSUMPTION


ENERGY IMPORT


CRUDE OIL- PRODUCTION


LIQUID FUELS - CONSUMPTION


TRANSPORT – FUEL COSUMPTION


REFINERY

  • Two refineries:

    • Oil Refinery Novi Sad(ORNS)

    • Oil Refinery Pancevo (ORP)

  • Total capacity

    • 7,8 Mt till 1999. year (ORNS – 3 Mt, ORP – 4,8 Mt)

    • 6,6 Mt after 1999. year (ORNS – 1,8 Mt, ORP – 4,8 Mt)


FUEL DISTRIBUTION

  • NIS (Jugopetrol & Naftagas)

    • 500+1600 (internal) pump stations

    • 8 filling stations for fuel distribution

  • Beopetrol (Lukoil)

    • 200 pump stations

    • 10 filling stations for fuel distribution

  • Jugopetrol Kotor


FUEL QUALITY LEGISLATION

  • Regulation for technical and all other requests for liquid fuel produced from oil – Off. Journal of SRJ 64/2000

  • Regulation for technical and all other requests for liquid fuel produced from oil – Off. Journal of Serbia and Montenegro 51/2004


PRODUCTS - GASOLINE

  • Leaded Gasoline

    • Normal MB 86

    • Regular MB 92

    • Premium MB 95

    • Super MB 98

  • Unleaded Gasoline

    • Euro Premium BMB 95

    • Euro Regular BMB 92

    • Premium BMB 95

    • Regular BMB 92


PRODUCTS – DIESEL OIL

  • Diesel Oil

    • Diesel Oil D2

    • Diesel Oil D2S

    • Diesel Oil D1E

  • Euro Diesel Oil

    • Euro Diesel Oil

    • Euro Diesel F


LEADED GASOLINE MB 95

  • RONmin 95

  • MONmin 83

  • lead content (mg/l)max 400

  • density at 15oC (kg/m3)recorded

  • benzene content (% (v/v))max 5

  • sulphur content (mg/kg)max 1000

  • oxygen content (% (m/m))max 2,7


LEADED GASOLINE MB 95

  • distillation

    • E100 (% (v/v))46,0 - 71,0

    • E150 (% (v/v))min 75,0

    • FBP (oC) max 210

    • Residue (% (v/v))max 2

  • vapor pressure (kPa)

    • winter (01.10.-31.03.)50,0 - 80,0

    • summer (01.04.-30.09)45,0 - 60,0


UNLEADED GASOLINE BMB 95

  • according JUS EN 228

  • except some characteristics till 31.12.2005.

  • MONmin 83

  • lead content (mg/l)max 13

  • density at 15oC (kg/m3)max 780

  • benzene content (% (v/v))max 5

  • sulphur content (mg/kg)max 650


DIESEL OIL D2

  • density (kg/m3)max 860

  • distillation - 95% (v/v) point (oC)max 375

  • viscosity (mm2/s)2,0 - 9,0

  • sulphur content (mg/kg)max 10000

  • cetane indexmin 45

  • water content (mg/kg)max 500


EURO DIESEL

  • according JUS EN 590

  • sulphur content (ppm)max 350


FUEL QUALITY CONTROL

  • at the exit from the refineries

  • several laboratories for fuel quality control

  • the special inspection for fuel quality control in the Ministry of Trade

  • the problem lies in the chain between the refineries and customer tank – many forbiden operations take place during the transportation and at the pump station


FUEL PRICE (SERBIA)

  • leaded gasolineMB9574,10 din/l

  • leaded gasolineMB9882,50 din/l

  • unleaded gasoline BMB9574,10 din/l

  • diesel fuel D261,90 din/l

  • euro diesel67,00 din/l

    • 1 euro = 83 din

    • 1 USD = 68 din


FUEL PRICE (MONTENEGRO)

  • leaded gasolineMB951,02 euro

  • unleaded gasoline BMB951,04 euro

  • diesel fuel D20,88 euro

  • euro diesel0,92 euro


VEHICLES

  • total number1.801.000

  • passenger car1.510.000

    • gasoline1.057.000

    • diesel453.000

  • LDV146.000

  • HDV133.000

  • bus12.000


VEHICLES AGING

  • restricted import of vehicles over six years


VEHICLE EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROL

  • control of exhaust emission is the responsibility of the vehicle technical control

  • vehicle tests are not very rigorous

  • 500 stations for vehicle testing

  • exhaust test failed about 5 % of total number of tested vehicles (officially)


TRANSPORT - PROBLEMS

  • old vehicle fleet

  • inadequate maintenance of vehicles

  • widespread use of old vehicles without catalytic converters

  • poor enforcement of the Regulation on Exhaust Emissions from Motor Vehicles

  • insufficient use of gas and alternative fuels

  • dominant road transport

  • insufficient road network, especially for the increasing volume of traffic


AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)

  • Ministry of Science and Environment – Directorate for Environmental Protection is responsible institution

    • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management

    • Ministry of Economy

    • Ministry of Health

    • Ministry for Capital Investments

    • Ministry for Mining and Energy

    • Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Services


AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)

  • Directorate for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development (Vojvodina)

  • Institute for Nature Protection

  • Hydro-Meteorology Institute

  • Public Health Institutes


AIR QUALITY (SERBIA)

  • Legal acts

    • Law on environmental protection (Off. Jour. Of RS 135/04)

    • Law on IPCC

    • Law on environmental impact assessment

    • Regulations


AIR QUALITY (MONTENEGRO)

  • Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning

    • Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management

    • Ministry of Economy

    • Ministry of Health

    • Ministry of Transportation

    • Ministry of Tourism


AIR QUALITY

  • data od annual emission of pollutants in ambient air from transport are not available

  • assumption:

    • road transport accounts for 80 dB noise level, 90 % of CO, 80 % of benzene, 50 % of NOx, 50 % of Pb, 10 % of NO2, 40 % of HC, 15 % of CO2


CONCLUSIONS – FUEL QUALITY

  • Reconstruction of refineries

  • Liberalization of the automotive fuels market

  • Strengthening the inspection

  • Strengthening of the non-governmental laboratories

  • Modernization of the laboratories

  • Adoption of new standards

  • Adopt the year for bans use of leaded gasoline

  • Adoption of the programme for promotion of environment friendly fuels, especially bioethanol and biodiesel


CONCLUSIONS – VEHICLE EMIISION

  • Improve the maintenance of vehicles

  • Change the structure of vehicle aging through different programme

  • Strengthening the control of exhaust emission as a part of vehicle technical control

  • Improve road transport

  • Adoption the emission limit values for motor vehicles according to the Directives (EU)


CONCLUSIONS – AIR QUALITY

  • Harmonization of the emission and imission regulation with the EU

  • Upgrade the monitoring system of air pollution from transport

  • Modernization of the laboratories and network


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