Exploring the spiritual needs of clients in therapeutic community treatment
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Exploring the spiritual needs of clients in therapeutic community treatment. PD DDr . Human-Friedrich Unterrainer Center for Integrative Addiction Research (CIAR), Grüner Kreis Society, Vienna Karl-Franzens-University, Graz Austria. 30th anniversary of the Grüner Kreis Society:

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Exploring the spiritual needs of clients in therapeutic community treatment

PD DDr. Human-Friedrich Unterrainer

Center for Integrative Addiction Research (CIAR), Grüner Kreis Society, Vienna

Karl-Franzens-University, Graz

Austria


30th anniversary of the Grüner Kreis Society:

2013 Conference on

„Addiction & Spirituality“

www.a-research.info


Content:

  • Bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model of health and illness

  • Dimensions of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (RSWB) in relation to personality and subjective well-being

  • RSWB dimensions in addictive diseases

  • Conclusions


Bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model of health and lllness

  • The bio-psycho-social model of health and disease, first proposed by Engel (1977), includes different aspects of health and illness such as biological, psycho-social and socio-economic factors.

  • Specifically, on evaluating relevant literature in this field of research, it can be concluded that this model – though comprehensive in principle – disregards a variety of facets which may also play a crucial role in health and illness.

  • For instance, this model does not consider religiosity and spirituality which can be assumed to be important in health and subjective well-being.


The concept of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (RSWB)(Unterrainer, Ladenhauf, & Huber, 2002)

Hope

Godimage

Spiritual

Forgiveness

Bio-Psycho-Social

AcceptanceofMortality

Rituals/ Symbols


A definition for “Religious/Spiritual Well-Being” (RSWB) can be given as…

…“the ability to experience and integrate meaning and purpose in existence through a connectedness with self, others or a power greater than oneself.”


Dimensions of RSWB (α=.89) / Item examples :

  • General Religiosity (α=.94) “My faith gives me a feeling of security”

  • Connectedness (α=.80) “I have experienced the feeling of being absorbed into something greater”

  • Forgiveness (α=.86) ”There are things which I cannot forgive”(coded reversely)

  • Experiences of Sense and Meaning (α=.73) “I have experienced true (authentic) feelings”

  • Hope Immanent (α=.81) “I view the future with optimism”

  • Hope Transcendent (α=.75) “I often think about the fact that I will have to leave behind my loved ones” (coded reversely)


 RSWB-dimensions were found to be substantially related with personality factors and varying indicators of mental health.


Religious/ Spiritual Well-Being

Extraversion

Neuroticism

Psychoticism

MagicalThinking


„The best cure for dipsomania is religiomania"

William James (1842-1910)


„Spiritus contra Spiritum“


Note.**p<.01; ***p<.001


Note.(1)n=120; (2)n=60; *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001; Pearson's r coefficient.


  • A male (19 y), college student whose first year was being seriously compromised after severe, 18-month, poly drug misuse, was treated with 11 sessions including a 2-month follow-up of neurofeedback combined with short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  • The combined treatment was found to be highly effective with the student who learned to deal with feelings of anhedonia and alienation. There was no relapse during the follow-up phase.


  • Dimensions of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (RSWB) were found to be substantially decreased in addictive patients.

  • Nevertheless, RSWB dimensions such as Hope or Forgiveness were confirmed as important resources for substance dependent in-patients.

  • Overall, our research suggests that therapeutic intervention programs focusing on building a positive and meaningful personal framework, akin to that of a religious/spiritual orientation, may contribute to positive outcomes in addiction treatment.

  • Longitudinal research is recommended in order to further elucidate the role of spirituality in addiction treatment.


Corresponding author: human.unterrainer@uni-graz.at


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