Energy efficient collision free medium access control for wireless sensor networks
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Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks. Venkatesh Rajendran , Katia Obraczka , J.J. Garcia-Luna- Aceves Wireless Networks 2006 JY Hong 2008. 10. 30. Contents. Introduction Related Works TRAMA Protocol Overview Neighbor Protocol

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Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Energy efficient collision free medium access control for wireless sensor networks

Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

VenkateshRajendran, KatiaObraczka, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

Wireless Networks 2006

JY Hong

2008. 10. 30


Contents

Contents

  • Introduction

  • Related Works

  • TRAMA

    • Protocol Overview

    • Neighbor Protocol

    • Schedule Exchange Protocol

    • Adaptive Election Algorithm

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusion

TRAMA


Introduction

Introduction

  • Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

    • Large ensembles of interconnected nodes

    • Self-organize into a multi-hop wireless network

    • The scheduling of transmissions among nodes is major challenge

      • Prolongs the battery life of each node

      • Self adaptive to changes in traffic, node state, connectivity

TRAMA


Related works 1

Related Works - 1

  • Research Categories of MAC

    • Contention-based

      • DCF 802.11b (Distributed Coordination Function)

      • PAMAS (Power Aware Multi Access Protocol with Signaling for ad hoc networks)

      • S-MAC (Sensor MAC)

    • Schedule-based, Contention-free

      • TDMA, FDMA, CDMA

      • NAMA (Node Activation Multiple Access)

TRAMA


Related works 2

Related Works - 2

  • S-MAC : Basic Mechanism

TRAMA


Traffic adaptive multiple access

TRafficAdaptive Multiple Access

  • TRAMA Characteristics

    • Energy-Efficient

      • No collision, No idle listening, No idle sender

      • Schedule-based

    • Fair

      • Transmitter-Election Algorithm

        • Identify of nodes one and two hop away

        • Traffic information

      • Adaptive scheduling

TRAMA


Protocol overview

Protocol Overview

  • Three components of TRAMA

    • Neighbor Protocol (NP)

      • Gather 2-hop neighborhood information

    • Schedule Exchange Protocol (SEP)

      • Gather 1-hop traffic information for Scheduling

    • Adaptive Election Algorithm (AEA)

      • Select transmitters

TRAMA


Protocol overview1

Protocol Overview

  • Access mode

    • Random Access

      • Node can join the network

      • All nodes must be in transmit or receive state  Collision

      • Significant role in energy consumption

    • Scheduled Access

      • Collision-free data exchange and schedule propagation

Time slot Organization

TRAMA


Energy efficient collision free medium access control for wireless sensor networks

NP

  • NP

    • Gather neighborhood information by exchanging small signaling packets in random access period

TRAMA


Sep 1

SEP - 1

  • Transmission slots

    • Collision-free data exchange and schedule propagation

  • SEP

    • Traffic-based information (Schedules) with neighbors

      • Traffic coming from a node

      • The set of receiver for the traffic originating at the node

    • A node has to announce its schedule using SEP before starting actual transmissions

TRAMA


Sep 2

SEP - 2

  • Schedule packet format

TRAMA


Sep 3

SEP - 3

Schedule packet of node u

(if winning slot are 2, 10, 20, 30, 35, 50, 58, 60)

  • Example

u

14

7

2 7 14 15

2 7 14 15

2 7 14 15

2 7 14 15

……..

2

30

2

10

20

15

Changeover Slot

Schedule packet of node 14

(if winning slot are 5, 15, 38, 42)

2 7 14 15

60

u

u

u

u

15

38

5

42

TRAMA


Aea 1

AEA - 1

  • Original NCR algorithm

    • Contending set

      • All nodes that are in two-hop neighborhood

      • No sleep state, not adaptive with traffic

  • TRAMA’s AEA

    • Possible state of a node

      • TX(Transmit), RX(Receive), SL(Sleep)

TRAMA


Aea 2

AEA - 2

  • U is a TX state

    • Highest priority among its contending set

    • U has data to send

  • U is a RX state

    • Intended receiver of the current transmitter

    • By consulting the schedule sent out by the selected transmitter

  • U is a SL state

    • No transmitter, No intended receiver

  • Each node executes AEA to decide its current state

    • Current node priorities in two-hop neighborhood

    • Based on the announced schedules form one-hop neighbors

  • TRAMA


    Aea 3

    AEA - 3

    • When a node becomes an Absolute Winner for a particular timeslot and has announced a non-zero bitmap for this slot, it know that no other node in its two-hop neighborhood will be transmitting in this slot

    Absolute Winner

    Intended Receiver

    TRAMA


    Aea 4

    AEA - 4

    • To avoid wasting slots when the Winner has no data to send

      • Possible Transmitter Set in the one-hop neighborhood

        • Highest priority in two-hop neighbor  No collision

        • PTX(u)

    Absolute Winner

    TRAMA


    Simulation parameters

    Simulation Parameters

    • Simulation platform

      • QUALNET

    • 500m X 500m area

    • 50 nodes are uniformly distributed

    • 6 one-hop neighbors on average

    • 17 two-hop neighbors on average

    • Node traffic

      • Statistically generated based on a exponentially distributed inter-arrival time

    TRAMA


    Simulation results 1

    Simulation Results - 1

    Percentage received

    TRAMA


    Simulation results 2

    Simulation Results - 2

    Average Delay

    TRAMA


    Simulation results 3

    Simulation Results - 3

    Percentage Sleep time

    TRAMA


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • TRAMA achieves

      • Energy-savings comparable to S-MAC

      • Delivery guarantees comparable to NAMA

    • TRAMA Limitations

      • Complex election algorithm and data structure

      • Overhead due to explicit schedule propagation

      • Higher Queueingdelay  Long delay

    • TRAMA has higher delay

      • It Suited for

        • Not delay sensitive

        • High delivery guarantees

        • Energy efficiency

    WSAN : Research Challenges


    Questions or comments

    Questions or Comments

    WSAN : Research Challenges


    Appendix alternate winner

    Appendix - Alternate Winner

    Absolute Winner

    Alternate Winner

    TRAMA


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