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Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks. Venkatesh Rajendran , Katia Obraczka , J.J. Garcia-Luna- Aceves Wireless Networks 2006 JY Hong 2008. 10. 30. Contents. Introduction Related Works TRAMA Protocol Overview Neighbor Protocol

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energy efficient collision free medium access control for wireless sensor networks

Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

VenkateshRajendran, KatiaObraczka, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

Wireless Networks 2006

JY Hong

2008. 10. 30

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Related Works
  • TRAMA
    • Protocol Overview
    • Neighbor Protocol
    • Schedule Exchange Protocol
    • Adaptive Election Algorithm
  • Simulation Results
  • Conclusion

TRAMA

introduction
Introduction
  • Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
    • Large ensembles of interconnected nodes
    • Self-organize into a multi-hop wireless network
    • The scheduling of transmissions among nodes is major challenge
      • Prolongs the battery life of each node
      • Self adaptive to changes in traffic, node state, connectivity

TRAMA

related works 1
Related Works - 1
  • Research Categories of MAC
    • Contention-based
      • DCF 802.11b (Distributed Coordination Function)
      • PAMAS (Power Aware Multi Access Protocol with Signaling for ad hoc networks)
      • S-MAC (Sensor MAC)
    • Schedule-based, Contention-free
      • TDMA, FDMA, CDMA
      • NAMA (Node Activation Multiple Access)

TRAMA

related works 2
Related Works - 2
  • S-MAC : Basic Mechanism

TRAMA

traffic adaptive multiple access
TRafficAdaptive Multiple Access
  • TRAMA Characteristics
    • Energy-Efficient
      • No collision, No idle listening, No idle sender
      • Schedule-based
    • Fair
      • Transmitter-Election Algorithm
        • Identify of nodes one and two hop away
        • Traffic information
      • Adaptive scheduling

TRAMA

protocol overview
Protocol Overview
  • Three components of TRAMA
    • Neighbor Protocol (NP)
      • Gather 2-hop neighborhood information
    • Schedule Exchange Protocol (SEP)
      • Gather 1-hop traffic information for Scheduling
    • Adaptive Election Algorithm (AEA)
      • Select transmitters

TRAMA

protocol overview1
Protocol Overview
  • Access mode
    • Random Access
      • Node can join the network
      • All nodes must be in transmit or receive state  Collision
      • Significant role in energy consumption
    • Scheduled Access
      • Collision-free data exchange and schedule propagation

Time slot Organization

TRAMA

slide9
NP
  • NP
    • Gather neighborhood information by exchanging small signaling packets in random access period

TRAMA

sep 1
SEP - 1
  • Transmission slots
    • Collision-free data exchange and schedule propagation
  • SEP
    • Traffic-based information (Schedules) with neighbors
      • Traffic coming from a node
      • The set of receiver for the traffic originating at the node
    • A node has to announce its schedule using SEP before starting actual transmissions

TRAMA

sep 2
SEP - 2
  • Schedule packet format

TRAMA

sep 3
SEP - 3

Schedule packet of node u

(if winning slot are 2, 10, 20, 30, 35, 50, 58, 60)

  • Example

u

14

7

2 7 14 15

2 7 14 15

2 7 14 15

2 7 14 15

……..

2

30

2

10

20

15

Changeover Slot

Schedule packet of node 14

(if winning slot are 5, 15, 38, 42)

2 7 14 15

60

u

u

u

u

15

38

5

42

TRAMA

aea 1
AEA - 1
  • Original NCR algorithm
    • Contending set
      • All nodes that are in two-hop neighborhood
      • No sleep state, not adaptive with traffic
  • TRAMA’s AEA
    • Possible state of a node
      • TX(Transmit), RX(Receive), SL(Sleep)

TRAMA

aea 2
AEA - 2
    • U is a TX state
      • Highest priority among its contending set
      • U has data to send
    • U is a RX state
      • Intended receiver of the current transmitter
      • By consulting the schedule sent out by the selected transmitter
    • U is a SL state
      • No transmitter, No intended receiver
  • Each node executes AEA to decide its current state
    • Current node priorities in two-hop neighborhood
    • Based on the announced schedules form one-hop neighbors

TRAMA

aea 3
AEA - 3
  • When a node becomes an Absolute Winner for a particular timeslot and has announced a non-zero bitmap for this slot, it know that no other node in its two-hop neighborhood will be transmitting in this slot

Absolute Winner

Intended Receiver

TRAMA

aea 4
AEA - 4
  • To avoid wasting slots when the Winner has no data to send
    • Possible Transmitter Set in the one-hop neighborhood
      • Highest priority in two-hop neighbor  No collision
      • PTX(u)

Absolute Winner

TRAMA

simulation parameters
Simulation Parameters
  • Simulation platform
    • QUALNET
  • 500m X 500m area
  • 50 nodes are uniformly distributed
  • 6 one-hop neighbors on average
  • 17 two-hop neighbors on average
  • Node traffic
    • Statistically generated based on a exponentially distributed inter-arrival time

TRAMA

simulation results 1
Simulation Results - 1

Percentage received

TRAMA

simulation results 2
Simulation Results - 2

Average Delay

TRAMA

simulation results 3
Simulation Results - 3

Percentage Sleep time

TRAMA

conclusion
Conclusion
  • TRAMA achieves
    • Energy-savings comparable to S-MAC
    • Delivery guarantees comparable to NAMA
  • TRAMA Limitations
    • Complex election algorithm and data structure
    • Overhead due to explicit schedule propagation
    • Higher Queueingdelay  Long delay
  • TRAMA has higher delay
    • It Suited for
      • Not delay sensitive
      • High delivery guarantees
      • Energy efficiency

WSAN : Research Challenges

questions or comments
Questions or Comments

WSAN : Research Challenges

appendix alternate winner
Appendix - Alternate Winner

Absolute Winner

Alternate Winner

TRAMA

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