Deoxyribonucleic acid dna
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). Students will be successful when they can…….. When they can summarize the experiments leading to the discovery of DNA as the genetic material Diagram and label the basic structure of DNA Describe the basic structure of the eukaryotic chromosome.

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

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Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA)

Students will be successful when they can……..

When they can summarize the experiments leading to the discovery of DNA as the genetic material

Diagram and label the basic structure of DNA

Describe the basic structure of the eukaryotic chromosome


Discovering dna the fredrick griffith experiment 1928

Discovering DNAThe Fredrick Griffith Experiment (1928)


Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

  • Griffith used two different strains of a bacteria that causes Pneumonia (Streptococcus pneumoniae)

  • One strain had a sugar coat (the S strain), and caused pneumonia killing a mouse by injection.

  • the other did not have a coat and is referred to as the rough strain (R strain). It did not kill the mouse by injection.


Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

  • Griffith discovered that if he heated the S strain it would die, and no longer kill the mouse.

  • But, if he mixed the heated S strained with some live R strain (non disease-causing) the R strain would be transformed into the S strain, killing the mouse.

  • The Smooth strain was extracted from the dead mouse and cultured. It was still the rough strain, but had developed characteristics of the disease causing strain.


Griffith s conclusions

Griffith’s Conclusions

  • Griffith concluded that there had been a transformation from the live R bacteria to Live S bacteria.

  • This experiment set the stage for the search to identify the transforming substance.


Oswald avery s experiment 1944

Oswald Avery’s Experiment (1944)

  • Avery and Colleagues identified the molecule that transformed the R strain of bacteria into the S strain.

  • He isoladed different macromolecules, such as DNA, Protien, and lipids.

  • When the live R strain was exposed to the DNA of the S strains DNA, it was transformed into the disease causing S strain.


Hershey and chase experiment 1952

Hershey and Chase Experiment (1952)

  • Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase published results of experiments that provided definitive evidence that DNA is the transforming factor


The experiment

The Experiment

  • Hershey and Chase used a new technique called radioactive labeling using radio-active Phosphorus(P32) and Radioactive sulfur (S35).

  • Proteins take up sulfur not phosphorus, so the proteins are labeled.

  • DNA takes up Phosphorus, but not sulfur, therefore labeling the DNA.


Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

Viruses and Bacteria are Grown in Medium Containing 32P, and another group of Viruses are grown in a medium of 35S. And then Blended up


Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

The Blender dislodges the viruses from the bacteria cells, and the bacteria is seperated from the liquid containing the viruses.


Results of the hershey chase experiment

Results of the Hershey Chase Experiment

  • Results: bacterial cells infected with the radioactive label of 32P had incorporated 32P into its cells.

  • The bacteria infected with the 35S did not incorporate it into itself, the 35S was left in the broth.


Conclusions

Conclusions

DNA not Protein was the genetic material that could be passed from generation to generation in viruses.


Ii dna structure

II. DNA Structure

  • After Hershey and Chase found that DNA was the molecule responsible for inheritance a scientific race had begun to discover the structure of the DNA molecule.


What is a nucleotide

What is a Nucleotide

The structure of Nucleotides includes: A phosphate sugar backbone, with one of the 5 nitrogenous bases (ATCG,U).


The 4 nucleotide bases of dna and uracil rna

The 4 Nucleotide basesof DNA and Uracil (RNA)

Uracil (only found in bacterial RNA)


We ve seen this structure before this is a molecular homology and evidence for evolution

We’ve seen this structure before!!(this is a molecular homology, and evidence for evolution)


The brilliance of erwin chargaff 1950

The Brilliance of Erwin Chargaff (1950)

  • Chargraff analyzed the numbers of each nucleotide (GCTA) in the entire genomes of different species. Here’s what he found!


Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

DUDE!!! The number

Of Adenine and Thymine

Are the Same!!!!

Dude!!! The number of

Cytosine and Guanine

Match Too!!!!


Deoxyribonucleic acid dna

DUDE!!!! So, What!!!

Well, for starters it implies that the Adenine and Thymine are related some how, as well as Cytosine and Guanine?

Like, maybe they’re totally complementary base pairs. DUDE!!!


Rosalind franklin

Rosalind Franklin

  • Rosalind Franklin took a new job at King’s college in London working with a technique called X-ray Diffraction.

  • X-ray diffraction shoots X-rays at molecules and measure how the energy waves are broken up. Allowing photographs of molecules to be taken.


Photograph 51

Photograph 51

  • Photograph 51 showed a pattern describing a double helix.

  • This photograph along with other data was taken without her knowledge by her Mentor and shared with two other scienctists.


James watson and francis crick

James Watson and Francis Crick

  • Both were working at Cambridge University (London) when they saw Rosalind photograph.

  • They soon realized that structure of the DNA was a double helix, and built their famous model.


The dna model that won them the nobel prize

The DNA Model that won themthe Nobel Prize

  • Two outside strands consist of alternating deoxyribose and phosphates.

  • Cytosine and guanine bases pair to each other by three hydrogen bonds

  • Thymine and adenine bases pair to each other by two hydrogen bonds


Orientation of the two strands

Orientation of the Two Strands

The top strand of DNA is the 5’ (5 prime) strand and at the end of the top rail is the 3’ (3 prime) and said to be 5’ to 3’ orientated.

The bottom rail is the opposite, 3’ to 5’.

This is referred to as antiparallel.


The announcement

The Announcement

In 1953 Watson and Crick surprised the scientific community by publishing a one-page paper in the journal Nature suggesting a structure for the DNA molecule as well as a hypothesized a method of replication.


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