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Biology 211 Anatomy & Physiology I. Peripheral Nervous System. Recall: All organs are composed of, at most, four tissues Epithelial tissue Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue.

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Biology 211 anatomy physiology i

Biology 211Anatomy & Physiology I

Peripheral Nervous System


Recall: All organs are composed of, at most, four tissues

Epithelial tissue

Connective tissue

Muscle tissue

Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue: Excitable cells (neurons)

Nonexcitable (supporting) cells

Connective tissue: Meninges - in central nervous system

Endoneurium

Perineurium in peripheral nervous system

Epineurium

Epithelium

found only in blood vessels of PNS

Muscle (smooth)


Cells of Nervous Tissue:

1) Excitable cells = Neurons

Carry electrical signals from one place to another

Pass these signals to other cells

2) Nonexcitable cells = Glia in CNS

in PNS


surrounding neuron cell bodies

Axon of neuron

Cell body of neuron

surrounding neuron processes (axons and dendrites)


In PNS:

Neuron cell bodies

grouped into

(single = )

Axons and dendrites grouped into nerves


Nerve:

Each axon (and some dendrites) surrounded by Schwann cells, which may or may not form a myelin sheath.

Outside the Schwann cells, each axon / dendrite surrounded by layer of connective tissue called


Axons / dendrites (surrounded by Schwann cells and endoneureum) form bundles called

each of which is surrounded by a thicker layer of connective tissue called


Fascicles group together to form a endoneureum) form bundles called nerve, which is surrounded by an even

thicker layer of connective tissue called


Nerves originate from both Brain endoneureum) form bundles called

Spinal Cord

Except for three cranial nerves, all nerves contain both afferent and efferent neuron processes (axons & dendrites)


Cranial Nerves endoneureum) form bundles called :

- Originate from the brain

- Pass through foramina

in the skull to reach

the periphery

12 pairs, Numbered from superior to inferior.

I, II, VIII purely sensory: Contain only afferent neuron processes

All others mixed: Contain both afferent and efferent neuron processes


The names, functions, origins, terminations, foramina, and effects of damage are listed in your Saladin text for all of the cranial nerves.

Using this information, you will be expected to know

a) The names and numbers of all 12 pairs of cranial nerves,

including the subdivisions of cranial nerve V

b) The foramen through which each cranial nerve passes

c) The primary functions of each cranial nerve

d) The effects of damage to each cranial nerve


Using this information, you will be expected to know effects of damage are listed in your Saladin text for all of the cranial nerves.

a) The names and numbers of all 12 pairs of cranial nerves,

including the subdivisions of cranial nerve V

b) The foramen through which each cranial nerve passes

c) The primary functions of each cranial nerve

d) The effects of damage to each cranial nerve

Example: The abducens nerve (VI) originates from the pons and exits the skull through the superior orbital fissure. It innervates the lateral rectus muscle which causes the eye to rotate laterally. Injury to this nerve on either side causes an inability to rotate that eye laterally, and unopposed function of the other muscles often cause the eye rotate medially.


Spinal Nerves effects of damage are listed in your Saladin text for all of the cranial nerves.:

- Originate from the

spinal cord by dorsal

and ventral roots

- Pass between vertebrae

through intervertebral

foramina to reach the

periphery


Spinal Nerves effects of damage are listed in your Saladin text for all of the cranial nerves.:

- Originate from the

spinal cord by dorsal

and ventral roots

- Pass between vertebrae

through intervertebral

foramina to reach the

periphery

- 31 pairs, numbered from

superior to inferior in

each region of the back


Naming Spinal Nerves effects of damage are listed in your Saladin text for all of the cranial nerves.:

Cervical nerves #1 through #7 leave the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina ABOVE the vertebrae with the same numbers.

Example: Cervical nerve #3 passes above cervical vertebra #3 (between cervical vertebra #2 and #3)

Cervical nerve #8 leaves the vertebral

canal through the intervertebral foramen between cervical vertebra #7 and thoracic vertebra #1 .


Naming Spinal Nerves effects of damage are listed in your Saladin text for all of the cranial nerves.:

Cervical nerve #8 leaves the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramen between cervical vertebra #7 and thoracic vertebra #1 .

All thoracic, lumbar, and sacral

nerves plus the single coccygeal

nerve leave the vertebral canal

through the intervertebral foramina

BELOW the vertebrae with the same numbers.

Example: Thoracic nerve #3 passes below thoracic vertebra #3 (between thoracic vertebra #3 and #4)


Spinal nerves passing through intervertebral foramina effects of damage are listed in your Saladin text for all of the cranial nerves.


Immediately distal to the intervertebral foramen, each spinal nerve divides into a

and a

Both rami are mixed, carrying both afferent & efferent information



Ventral rami of spinal nerves Thoracic 2 -12 innervate muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)


Ventral rami of spinal nerves Thoracic 2 -12 innervate muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)

But:

Ventral rami of all other spinal nerves

Cervical 1 - 8,

Thoracic 1,

Lumbar 1-5,

Sacral 1-5

enter into a plexus


A muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)plexus is an interchange which allows nerves from different spinal cord levels to combine to serve common structures.

1. Each nerve distal to a

plexus carries axons to

& from more than

one level of the spinal

cord.

Example: Radial nerve

carries information to

& from five levels of

the spinal cord:

C5, C6, C7, C8, T1


1. Each nerve distal to a plexus carries axons to / from muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)

more than one level of the spinal cord.

Example: Radial nerve carries information to and from

five levels of the spinal cord: C5, C6, C7, C8, T1

2. Axons carrying

information to / from a

single spinal cord level

are distributed through

more than one nerve

distal to the plexus

Example: Spinal cord

level C7 sends and

receives information

through more than 20

different nerves


Four plexes: muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)


Cervical Plexus muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)

Originates from ventral rami of nerves C1, C2, C3, C4 (+C5)

Carries efferent neurons to many muscles of the neck.

Carries afferent neurons from skin of the neck, shoulder, and scalp near ear


Brachial Plexus muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)

Originates from ventral rami of nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, T1, (+C4)

Carries efferent neurons to muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand

Carries afferent neurons from skin of the shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand


Lumbar Plexus muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)

Originates from ventral rami of nerves L1, L2, L3, L4

(+T12, +L5)

Carries efferent neurons to muscles of the anterior pelvis, anterior and medial thigh

Carries afferent neurons from skin of the anterior pelvis, anterior and medial thigh, and medial leg.


Sacral Plexus muscles and skin of body wall (thorax and abdomen)

Originates from ventral rami of nerves (+L4), L5, S1, S2, S3, S4, (+S5, Cx1)

Carries efferent neurons to muscles of the posterior pelvis, posterior thigh, anterior and posterior leg, and foot

Carries afferent neurons from skin of the posterior pelvis, posterior thigh, anterior and posterior leg, and foot.


We will go into greater detail about the cervical plexus, but you will not be held responsible for details of the cervical, lumbar, or sacral plexes EXCEPT:

You need to know which spinal nerves contribute their ventral rami to each plexus.

You need to know which plexus gives rise to each of the following nerves, and which area of the body each of them innervates:

Common peroneal Obturator

Femoral Phrenic

Genitofemoral Pudendal

Inferior and superior gluteal Tibial

(Sciatic)


Summary of the Brachial Plexus but you will not be held responsible for details of the cervical, lumbar, or sacral plexes


More than 20 nerves leave the brachial plexus to supply both afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) innervation to the shoulder, arm, forearm, hand, and parts of the neck and thoracic wall.

We will follow five of these:

1. Musculocutaneous nerve: Arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus.

Innervates muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm; skin of lateral forearm


1. Musculocutaneous nerve: Arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus.

Innervates muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm; skin of lateral forearm

2. Ulnar Nerve: Arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus.

Innervates muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm & some intrinsic muscles of the hand; skin on medial third of hand (both anterior and posterior surfaces)


2. Ulnar nerve: Arises from the medial cord of brachial plexus. Innervates muscles of the anterior compartment of forearm & some muscles of hand; skin on medial third of hand (posterior & anterior)

3. Median Nerve: Arises from medial AND lateral cords of the brachial plexus.

Innervates muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm & some intrinsic muscles of the hand; skin on anterior surface of lateral two-thirds of hand


3. Median Nerve: plexus. Innervates muscles of the anterior compartment of forearm & some muscles of hand; skin on medial third of hand (posterior & anterior) Arises from medial AND lateral cords of the brachial plexus. Innervates muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm & some muscles of hand; skin on anterior surface of lateral two-thirds of hand

4. Radial Nerve: Arises from posterior cord of brachial plexus.

Innervates muscles in posterior compartment of arm & posterior compartment of forearm; skin on posterior surface of lateral two-thirds of hand & skin on posterior surfaces of forearm and arm


4. Radial Nerve: plexus. Innervates muscles of the anterior compartment of forearm & some muscles of hand; skin on medial third of hand (posterior & anterior) Arises: posterior cord of brachial plexus.

Innervates muscles in posterior compartments of arm & forearm; skin on posterior surface of lateral two-thirds of hand & skin on posterior surfaces of forearm and arm

5. Axillary Nerve: Arises from posterior cord of brachial plexus.

Innervates shoulder joint, deltoid and teres minor muscles; skin of shoulder


Cutaneous Innervation plexus. Innervates muscles of the anterior compartment of forearm & some muscles of hand; skin on medial third of hand (posterior & anterior)

Axillary

(Medial antebrachial cutaneous)

Radial

Musculocutaneous

Ulnar

Median

Anterior

Posterior


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