The Future of Organic Electronics

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Inorganic vs. Organic. Organic electronics, or plastic electronics, is the branch of electronics that deals with conductive polymers, which are carbon based.Inorganic electronics, on the other hand, relies on inorganic conductors like copper or silicon.. Silicon sample. Carbon sample. Benefits and Obstacles.
The Future of Organic Electronics

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1. The Future of Organic Electronics

2. Inorganic vs. Organic Organic electronics, or plastic electronics, is the branch of electronics that deals with conductive polymers, which are carbon based. Inorganic electronics, on the other hand, relies on inorganic conductors like copper or silicon.

3. Benefits and Obstacles Organic electronics are lighter, more flexible, and less expensive than their inorganic counterparts. They are also biodegradable (being made from carbon). This opens the door to many exciting and advanced new applications that would be impossible using copper or silicon. However, conductive polymers have high resistance and therefore are not good conductors of electricity. In many cases they also have shorter lifetimes and are much more dependant on stable environment conditions than inorganic electronics would be.

5. Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) An OLED is a thin film LED in which the emissive layer is an organic compound. When this layer is polymeric (or plastic), OLEDs can be deposited in rows and columns on a screen using simple printing methods that are much more efficient than those used in manufacturing traditional LEDs. A key benefit of OLEDs is that they don?t need a backlight to function.

6. How it Works An electron and hole pair is generated inside the emissive layer by a cathode and a transparent anode, respectively. When the electron and hole combine, a photon is produced, which will show up as a dot of light on the screen. Many OLEDs together on a screen make up a picture

7. Less expensive to produce Wide range of colors and viewing angle Consumes much less energy than traditional LCDs. Flexible and extremely thin Limited lifetime of about 1,000 hours. Susceptible to water

8. Organic transistors INTRODUCTION Organic transistors are transistors that use organic molecules rather than silicon for their active material. This active material can be composed of a wide variety of molecules. Advantages of organic transistors: Compatibility with plastic substances Lower temperature is used while manufacturing (60-120?C) Lower cost and deposition processes such as spin-coating, printing and evaporation Less need to worry about dangling bonds( simplifies the process) Disadvantages of organic transistors: Lower mobility and switching speeds compared to Si wafers Usually does not operate under invasion mode. Example of an organic transistor (on the side)

9. Organic Thin film transistors(OTFTS) TFTs are transistors created using thin films, usually of silicon deposited on glass. The deposited silicon must be crystallized using laser pulses at high temperatures. OTFTs active layers can be theramlly evaporated and deposited on any organic substrate (a flexible piece of plastic) at much lower temperatures. Benefits of an OTFT: Does not require glass substrate as amorphous Si does. It could be made on a piece of plastic. Manufactured at lower temperatures Deposition techniques could reduce costs dramatically. Challenges involved: Workarounds for complications with photo resists. To find organic semiconductors with high enough mobilities and switching times.

10. Picture of an OTFT made on a plastic substrate FUTURE OTFT technology?s application is diverse. Organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) technology involves the use of organic semiconducting compounds in electronic components, notably computer displays. Such displays are bright, the colors are vivid, they provide fast response times (which need to be developed in OTFT), and they are easy to read in most ambient lighting environments. Organic substrates allow for displays to be fabricated on flexible surfaces, rather than on rigid materials as is necessary in traditional TFT displays. A piece of flexible plastic might be coated with OTFT material and made into a display that can be handled like a paper document. Sets of such displays might be bundled, producing magazines or newspapers whose page contents can be varied periodically, or even animated. This has far-reaching ramifications. For example, comic book characters might move around the pages and speak audible words. More likely, such displays will find use in portable computers and communications systems.

11. Organic Nano-Radio Frequency Identification Devices Radio Frequency Identification Devices, or RFID, on Tags are used for item-level tracking of individual consumer goods. Such tags are expected to dramatically improve the automation, inventory control and checkout operations of products. Radio Frequency Identification Devices, or RFID, on Tags are used for item-level tracking of individual consumer goods. Such tags are expected to dramatically improve the automation, inventory control and checkout operations of products.

12. Production and Applications Quicker Checkout Inventory Control Reduced Waste Efficient flow of goods from manufacturer to consumer Using Nano devices researchers intend to replace the cumbersome UPC barcode that is found on many products and replace it with one of these tags. Scientists are currently working on this technology to apply it to mass checkout at supermarkets, but have several minor obstacles that still must be overcome. Two of these obstacles are that each individual tag must cost less than one cent, and each RFID must function in the presence of substantial amounts of metal and radio frequency absorbing fluids.Using Nano devices researchers intend to replace the cumbersome UPC barcode that is found on many products and replace it with one of these tags. Scientists are currently working on this technology to apply it to mass checkout at supermarkets, but have several minor obstacles that still must be overcome. Two of these obstacles are that each individual tag must cost less than one cent, and each RFID must function in the presence of substantial amounts of metal and radio frequency absorbing fluids.

13. Production Specifications of Manufacturing a Nano-RFID > 96 bits Four main communication Bands: 135KHz, 13.56MHz, 900MHz, 2.4 GHz Vacuum Sublimation Vacuum Sublimation has allowed for excellent performance using small-molecule organic materials, resulting in circuits operating at several megahertz. Each nano-device will consist of 96 bits of information, but may contain more, such as 128 bits. The operating range for low cost devices will be limited by the power delivery from the reader to each tag. This makes the lower frequencies more appealing because they are better for power coupling. Thus, 13.54MHz looks like the most attractive frequency, however researchers are also considering the frequency at the 900Mhz range also plausible.Vacuum Sublimation has allowed for excellent performance using small-molecule organic materials, resulting in circuits operating at several megahertz. Each nano-device will consist of 96 bits of information, but may contain more, such as 128 bits. The operating range for low cost devices will be limited by the power delivery from the reader to each tag. This makes the lower frequencies more appealing because they are better for power coupling. Thus, 13.54MHz looks like the most attractive frequency, however researchers are also considering the frequency at the 900Mhz range also plausible.

15. Smart Textiles Integrates electronic devices into textiles, like clothing Made possible because of low fabrication temperatures Has many potential uses, including: Monitoring heart-rate and other vital signs, controlling embedded devices (mp3 players), keep the time?

16. Lab on a Chip A device that incorporates multiple laboratory functions in a single chip Organic is replacing some Si fabrication methods: -Lower cost -Easier to manufacture -More flexible

17. Portable, Compact Screens Screens that can roll up into small devices Black and White prototype already made by Philips (the Readius? at the bottom-left) Color devices will be here eventually

18. References http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci512140,00.html students.washington.edu/jetpeach/ EE341_Organic_Transistors_Presentation.ppt http://www.chem.uky.edu/research/anthony/tft.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLED www.tagsysrfid.com


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