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Introduction to IB Psychology. What is Psychology? Goal 1.1. How to be a Psychology student. Be a critical thinker – ask questions. Believe nothing without examining the evidence. Consider that often the answers are “open ended” meaning that there may be no “right” or “wrong” answers.

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Introduction to ib psychology

Introduction to IB Psychology

What is Psychology?

Goal 1.1


How to be a psychology student
How to be a Psychology student

  • Be a critical thinker – ask questions. Believe nothing without examining the evidence.

  • Consider that often the answers are “open ended” meaning that there may be no “right” or “wrong” answers.

  • Always be open minded. Use your psychological knowledge, but consider other ideas.

  • Nothing in Psychology is ever PROVED! It is theorized.


Everyday psychology
Everyday Psychology

  • Why does he do that?

  • Must be in a dysfunctional family

  • Never learned to control his emotions

  • Must be a sociopath

  • Who’s pulling your strings?

    When we explain human actions in terms of beliefs, motives, love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology


  • When we explain human actions in terms of beliefs, motives, love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • Definition of Psychology:

    • Scientific study of mental processes and behavior and how these are effected by internal processes and the environment


Scientific
Scientific! love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • This means systematic and controlled study of human behavior with the hope of establi

    shing cause and effect


Mental processes
Mental Processes love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • Attention, memory, emotion and attitudes (covert behaviors)

  • Aggression, helping, sleeping (overt behaviors– can be measured)


Internal processes and the environment
Internal Processes and the Environment love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • IP’s – hormones, genes, brain chemistry

  • Environment – family, friends, religion, neighborhood, weather


Levels of analysis in psychology an integrative approach
Levels of Analysis in Psychology: love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychologyan integrative approach

No One Factor is to Blame!!!

Biological Level

focuses on genetics and physiology

Cognitive Level

focuses on mental processes like memory, thinking, perception and attention

Sociocultural Level

focuses on how environment and culture affect behavior or thinking


For example
For Example love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • Gender is determined by

    • Biology – hormones, genetic makeup (XX and XY chromosones

    • Cognitive – we form mental representations (schema) of what it means to be a boy or girl and these guide our behavior. Gender stereotypes are formed this way.

    • Socio-culture – we learn gender behavior by watching how other people of our own sex behave. Our culture and society also affect our roles and shape our views


Building blocks of scientific psychology theories and empirical studies
Building Blocks of scientific psychology: love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychologyTheories and empirical studies

  • Theory – an explanation for a psychological phenomenon

    • A statement used to organize, summarize and explain observations

    • Can be used to make predictions

    • Not like laws of science

    • Theories are probably, but not certain

    • Always open to some degree of doubt


Theory by carol dweck of stanford university
Theory by Carol love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychologyDweck of Stanford University

  • People are successful not because of talent, but because of hard work.

  • If you have a fixed mindset, you are less likely to be successful than if you have a growth mindset

  • Fixed mindset – You are born smart or not. I don’t want people to think I am dumb, so I won’t do something that I might fail at. I give up easily and consider effort to be a waste of time. If I have to work hard I must be dumb. I don’t like people to criticize me and


Fixed mindset
Fixed Mindset love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • – You are born smart or not. I don’t want people to think I am dumb, so I won’t do something that I might fail at. I give up easily and consider effort to be a waste of time. If I have to work hard I must be dumb. I don’t like people to criticize me and ignore any of their dumb ideas. I feel threatened by the successf of others


Growth mindset
Growth Mindset love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • Noone is born smart. You have to work at it.

  • If I work hare enough I can do just about anything. I know I will make mistakes and fail every once in a while, but that’s ok. I learn by my mistakes

  • I take criticism in stride. If the shoe fits, wear it! I am inspired by others success.


Your opinion
Your Opinion love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • Does this theory correspond to real life? Try to evaluate it based on your own experiences.

  • To what extent does this theory offer insight into possible differences in terms of what people achieve in education, sport, or the arts?


Empirical investigation
Empirical Investigation love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • When a researcher collects and analyzes data in order to investigate a psychological phenomenon

  • It is research that can be observed and measured.


If you haven t failed you haven t lived
If you haven’t failed, you haven’t lived love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RmTxr7OsPj0

  • Carol Dweck: Discovering the importance of mindset (youtube)

  • Carol Dweck: The effect of praise on mindset


Are you a critical thinker
Are you a critical thinker? love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • Question assumptions and biases?

  • Evaluate available evidence

  • Consider alternative interpretations

  • Avoid emotional reasoning

  • Do not jump to oversimplified conclusions

  • Knows that plausible conclusions are based on evidence

  • Is willing to reassess conclusions if new information appears

  • Is able to tolerate some uncertainty.


Review
Review: love or childhood experiences, we are using “folk psychology” or common-sense psychology

  • Excellent Psychology students always (list 2)

  • How does common sense psychology differ from Psychology?


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