인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물
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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물. 강의자료 ppt-9. 2011-1 학기. 미생물 은 어떤 존재인가?. 생명공학 (biotechnology) 의 주체인 미생물. Biotechnology ( 생명공학 , 생물공학 ). Use of organisms to form useful products (in industrial, medical, or agricultural applications) . Products of Microbial Biotechnology.

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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

강의자료ppt-9

2011-1학기


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미생물은어떤 존재인가?


Biotechnology

생명공학(biotechnology)의 주체인 미생물


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Biotechnology (생명공학, 생물공학)

Use of organisms to form useful products (inindustrial, medical, or agricultural applications)


Products of microbial biotechnology

Products of Microbial Biotechnology


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  • 식품 및 식품 첨가물 생산: 발효 식품, 아미노산, 미생물 식품으로 이용(버섯, 미역, 김 등)

  • 건강(영양)보조제 생산: 식이섬유, 비타민, 미생물 건강(영양)보조제로 이용(유산균, 클로렐라, 스피루리나, 효모 등)

  • 의약품 생산: 항생물질, 호르몬, 스테로이드등

  • 효소 생산: 산업용 효소, 세제 첨가용 효소

  • 화학제품 생산: 바이오폴리머(생분해 플라스틱 등), 시트르산, 아세톤, 글리세린, 에틸알코홀, 초산 등

  • 연료 생산: 메탄가스, 에틸알코홀, 수소 가스 등

  • 살충제 생산:미생물 살충제

  • 광물 정제:구리, 금, 납 등


Combinational biology in biotechnology

Combinational Biology in Biotechnology


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식품 및식품첨가물 생산


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Products for food industry

  • Wine

  • Brewing, distilling, and commodity Alcohol

  • Vinegar

  • Citric acid and other organic compounds

  • Yeastas a food and food supplement

  • Mushrooms, spirulina, chlorella, edible seaweeds as a food source


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Industrial uses of yeast and yeast products


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Vitamins and amino acids: Amino acids

  • Amino Acids

    • Used as feed additives in the food industry

    • Used as nutritional supplements in nutraceutical industry

    • Used as starting materials in the chemical industry

    • Examples include

      • Glutamicacid (MSG)

      • Aspartic acid and phenylalanine (aspartame [Nutrasweet])

      • Lysine (food additives)


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건강(영양)보조제 생산


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Industrial uses of yeast and yeast products


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Vitamins and amino acids: Vitamins

  • Production of vitamins is second only to antibiotics in terms of total pharmaceutical sales

    • Vitamin B12 produced exclusively by microorganisms

      • Deficiency results in pernicious anemia (악성빈혈)

    • Riboflavin can also be produced by microbes

VB12

Riboflavin


Amino acids used in the food industry

Amino acids used in the food industry


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의약품 생산


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Steroids and other biotransformations

  • Steroids

    • Are derivatives of sterols

    • Are important animal hormones with medicinal uses

      • Corticosteroids reduce inflammation, and help control allergies, inflammation and arthritis

      • Estrogens and androgenic steroids play a role in human fertility and can stimulate production of muscle mass

    • Production of steroids by chemical process is costly

      • Use microbes to reduce cost (biotransformation)

Sterol


Cortisone production using a microbe biotransformation

Cortisone production using a microbe: Biotransformation


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효소 생산


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Enzymes as industrial products

  • Exoenzymes

    • Enzymes that are produced in such large amounts that they are excreted into the medium instead of being held within the cell; they are extracellular

    • Can digest insoluble polymers such as cellulose, protein, and starch


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Enzymes as industrial products

  • Enzymes are produced from fungi and bacteria

    • Bacterial proteases are used in laundry detergents (can also contain amylases, lipases, and reductases)

      • Isolated from alkaliphilic bacteria

  • Amylases and glucoamylasesare also commercially important

    • Produce high-fructose syrup


Microbial enzymes and their applications

Microbial enzymes and their applications


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Enzymes as industrial products

  • Extremozymes

    • Enzymes that function at some environmental extreme (i.e., pH or temperature)

    • Produced by extremophiles


Examples of extremozymes acid tolerant enzymes

Examples of extremozymes: Acid-tolerant enzymes


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화학제품 생산


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Industrial uses of yeast and yeast products


Biopolymers

Biopolymers

  • Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB)

    • Bioplastic

  • Dextrin (a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen), cyclodextrin, and other polysaccharides

    • Used to modify flow characteristics of liquids and to serve as gelling agents


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Bacterial plastics

  • The recalcitrance of plastics has fueled research efforts into a biodegradable alternative (biopolymers)


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Bacterial plastics

poly-β-hydroxybutyrate

Poly-β-hydroxyvalerate


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Bacterial plastics

Shampoo bottle made of

the PHB/PHV copolymer


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Biosurfactants

  • Used for emulsification, increasing detergency, wetting and phase dispersion, and solubilization

  • Important in bioremediation, oil spill dispersion, and enhancing oil recovery

  • Many have antibacterial and antifungal activity; some inactivate enveloped viruses


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Commodity alcohol production

  • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes

    • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement

Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA


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연료 생산


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Commodity alcohol production

  • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes

    • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement

Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA


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Estimates of CH4released into the atmosphere


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Anoxic decomposition


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Production of petroleum by some microbes

Certain green algae

Botryococcusbraunii excreting oil droplets


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살충제 생산


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Microbial insecticides (biopesticides)

  • Biological agents, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, or their components, which can be used to kill a susceptible insect


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  • Microbial insecticides (biopesticides):

  • Bacteria as biopesticides

  • Bacillus thuringiensis

    • Produces a parasporal body duringsporulation as an intracellular protein toxin crystal

    • Parasporalbody

      • Acts as microbial insecticide (Bt toxin) for specific groups of insects

    • Bt toxin

      • used for over 40 years

      • unlike chemical insecticides, does not accumulate in environment


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Toxic parasporal crystal in Bacillus thuringiensis


Activation of bt toxin

Activation of Bt toxin


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Action mechanism of Bt toxin


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광물 정제


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Microbial leaching of ores

  • In microbial leaching, low-grade ore is dumped in a large pile (the leach dump) and sulfuric acid is added to maintain a low pH

  • The liquid emerging from the bottom of the pile is enriched in dissolved metals and is transported to a precipitation plant

  • Bacterial oxidation of Fe2+ (ferrousiron, 2가철)is critical in microbial leaching as Fe3+ (ferriciron, 3가철) itself can oxidize metals in the ores


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Microbialleaching oflow-gradecopperores


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Microbial leaching


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Microbial leaching of ores

  • Microbes are also used in the leaching of uranium and gold ores

Gold bioleaching tanks in Ghana


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기타 역할


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Microbes as products for nanotechnology

  • Microbes for nanotechnology

    • e.g., use of diatom 3-D structures as templates

    • e.g., use magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria in magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) applications and as probes to detect cancer


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Biotechnological applications:

Biosensors

  • Living microbes, enzymes or organelles are linked to electrodes to detect specific substances

    • detection is done by converting biological reaction products into electrical currents

  • Have a broad range of applications


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생명공학에 필요한새로운 유전자 탐색


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Mining genomes

  • Gene mining

    • The process of isolating potentially useful novel genes from the environment without culturing the organism

    • To do so, DNA (or RNA) is directly isolated from the environment, cloned into appropriate expression vectors, and the library screened for activities of interest

* Metagenome

- The total genome of all the cells present in a particular environment


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Metagenomicsearch for useful genes in the environment


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형질전환생물 제작과 미생물


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Transgenic organisms

  • Transgenic organism

    • An organism that contains a gene from another organism

    • Also refers to genetically engineered orgamisms whether or not they contain foreign DNA

  • Engineering metabolic pathways in bacteria

  • Genetic engineering of animals

  • Gene therapy in humans

  • Transgenic plants in agriculture


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Transgenic organisms:

Engineering metabolic pathways in bacteria

  • The production of small metabolites by genetic engineering typically involves multiple genes that must be coordinately expressed

  • Pathway engineering

    • The process of assembling a new or improved biochemical pathway using genes from one or more organisms


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Transgenic organisms:

Genetic engineering of animals

  • Genetic engineering can be used to develop transgenic animals

  • Transgenic animals are useful for

    • Producing human proteins that require specific posttranslational modifications

    • Medical research

    • Improving livestock and other food animals for human consumption


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A piglet that fluoresces green under blue light


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Fast-growing, genetically engineered salmon


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Transgenic organisms:

Gene theraphy in humans

  • Gene therapy: treatment of a disease caused by a dysfunctional gene by introducing a functional copy of the gene

  • Many human genetic diseases are known and gene therapy holds promise for tackling these diseases

  • The use of recombinant DNA technology and conventional genetic studies allows for the localization of particular genetic defects to specific regions of the genome


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Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Many successes in plant genetic engineering

    - Several transgenic plants are in agricultural production

  • The plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can be used to introduce DNA into plants

  • A. tumefaciens contains the Ti plasmid, which is responsible for virulence

  • The Ti plasmid contains genes that mobilize DNA for transfer to the plant


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Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • The plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can be used to introduce DNA into plants

  • A. tumefaciens contains the Ti plasmid, which is responsible for virulence

  • The Ti plasmid contains genes that mobilize DNA for transfer to the plant


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Production of transgenic plants using A. tumefaciens


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Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Tobacco was the first genetically modified (GM) plant to be grown commercially

    • 2005 estimates that > 1 billion acres of agricultural land are growing GM crops

  • Several areas are targeted for genetic improvements in plants including herbicide, insect, and microbial disease resistance as well as improved product quality


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Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Plants are engineered to have herbicide resistance to protect them from herbicides applied to kill weeds (e.g., glyphosphate)


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Transgenic plant with herbicide resistance


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Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • One of the most widely used approaches for genetically engineering insect resistance in plants involves the introduction of genes encoding the toxic protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin)


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Transgenic plant with insect resistance


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Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Improving product quality is another target area of genetic engineering of plants

    • e.g., spoilage delay

  • Transgenic plants can also be employed to produce human proteins for medical use

    • e.g., insulin, interferon, antibodies, vaccines


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Impacts of microbial biotechnology

  • Industrial ecology

    • Concerned with tracking flow of elements and compounds through natural world (biosphere) and social world (anthrosphere)

  • Microbiologists must:

    • Understand potential impacts of new products and processes on the broader society as well as on microbiology

    • Communicate effectively with the various “societal stakeholders” about the immediate and longer-term potential impacts of biotechnologies


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