인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물
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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물. 강의자료 ppt-9. 2011-1 학기. 미생물 은 어떤 존재인가?. 생명공학 (biotechnology) 의 주체인 미생물. Biotechnology ( 생명공학 , 생물공학 ). Use of organisms to form useful products (in industrial, medical, or agricultural applications) . Products of Microbial Biotechnology.

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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

강의자료ppt-9

2011-1학기


미생물은어떤 존재인가?


Biotechnology
생명공학(biotechnology)의 주체인 미생물


Biotechnology (생명공학, 생물공학)

Use of organisms to form useful products (inindustrial, medical, or agricultural applications)


Products of microbial biotechnology
Products of Microbial Biotechnology


  • 식품 및 식품 첨가물 생산: 발효 식품, 아미노산, 미생물 식품으로 이용(버섯, 미역, 김 등)

  • 건강(영양)보조제 생산: 식이섬유, 비타민, 미생물 건강(영양)보조제로 이용(유산균, 클로렐라, 스피루리나, 효모 등)

  • 의약품 생산: 항생물질, 호르몬, 스테로이드등

  • 효소 생산: 산업용 효소, 세제 첨가용 효소

  • 화학제품 생산: 바이오폴리머(생분해 플라스틱 등), 시트르산, 아세톤, 글리세린, 에틸알코홀, 초산 등

  • 연료 생산: 메탄가스, 에틸알코홀, 수소 가스 등

  • 살충제 생산:미생물 살충제

  • 광물 정제:구리, 금, 납 등


Combinational biology in biotechnology
Combinational Biology in Biotechnology


식품 및식품첨가물 생산


Products for food industry

  • Wine

  • Brewing, distilling, and commodity Alcohol

  • Vinegar

  • Citric acid and other organic compounds

  • Yeastas a food and food supplement

  • Mushrooms, spirulina, chlorella, edible seaweeds as a food source



Vitamins and amino acids: Amino acids

  • Amino Acids

    • Used as feed additives in the food industry

    • Used as nutritional supplements in nutraceutical industry

    • Used as starting materials in the chemical industry

    • Examples include

      • Glutamicacid (MSG)

      • Aspartic acid and phenylalanine (aspartame [Nutrasweet])

      • Lysine (food additives)


건강(영양)보조제 생산



Vitamins and amino acids: Vitamins

  • Production of vitamins is second only to antibiotics in terms of total pharmaceutical sales

    • Vitamin B12 produced exclusively by microorganisms

      • Deficiency results in pernicious anemia (악성빈혈)

    • Riboflavin can also be produced by microbes

VB12

Riboflavin


Amino acids used in the food industry
Amino acids used in the food industry



Steroids and other biotransformations

  • Steroids

    • Are derivatives of sterols

    • Are important animal hormones with medicinal uses

      • Corticosteroids reduce inflammation, and help control allergies, inflammation and arthritis

      • Estrogens and androgenic steroids play a role in human fertility and can stimulate production of muscle mass

    • Production of steroids by chemical process is costly

      • Use microbes to reduce cost (biotransformation)

Sterol


Cortisone production using a microbe biotransformation
Cortisone production using a microbe: Biotransformation



Enzymes as industrial products

  • Exoenzymes

    • Enzymes that are produced in such large amounts that they are excreted into the medium instead of being held within the cell; they are extracellular

    • Can digest insoluble polymers such as cellulose, protein, and starch


Enzymes as industrial products

  • Enzymes are produced from fungi and bacteria

    • Bacterial proteases are used in laundry detergents (can also contain amylases, lipases, and reductases)

      • Isolated from alkaliphilic bacteria

  • Amylases and glucoamylasesare also commercially important

    • Produce high-fructose syrup


Microbial enzymes and their applications
Microbial enzymes and their applications


Enzymes as industrial products

  • Extremozymes

    • Enzymes that function at some environmental extreme (i.e., pH or temperature)

    • Produced by extremophiles


Examples of extremozymes acid tolerant enzymes
Examples of extremozymes: Acid-tolerant enzymes




Biopolymers
Biopolymers

  • Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB)

    • Bioplastic

  • Dextrin (a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen), cyclodextrin, and other polysaccharides

    • Used to modify flow characteristics of liquids and to serve as gelling agents


Bacterial plastics

  • The recalcitrance of plastics has fueled research efforts into a biodegradable alternative (biopolymers)


Bacterial plastics

poly-β-hydroxybutyrate

Poly-β-hydroxyvalerate


Bacterial plastics

Shampoo bottle made of

the PHB/PHV copolymer


Biosurfactants

  • Used for emulsification, increasing detergency, wetting and phase dispersion, and solubilization

  • Important in bioremediation, oil spill dispersion, and enhancing oil recovery

  • Many have antibacterial and antifungal activity; some inactivate enveloped viruses


Commodity alcohol production

  • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes

    • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement

Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA



Commodity alcohol production

  • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes

    • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement

Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA


Estimates of CH4released into the atmosphere


Anoxic decomposition


Production of petroleum by some microbes

Certain green algae

Botryococcusbraunii excreting oil droplets



Microbial insecticides (biopesticides)

  • Biological agents, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, or their components, which can be used to kill a susceptible insect


  • Bacillus thuringiensis

    • Produces a parasporal body duringsporulation as an intracellular protein toxin crystal

    • Parasporalbody

      • Acts as microbial insecticide (Bt toxin) for specific groups of insects

    • Bt toxin

      • used for over 40 years

      • unlike chemical insecticides, does not accumulate in environment


Toxic parasporal crystal in Bacillus thuringiensis





Microbial leaching of ores

  • In microbial leaching, low-grade ore is dumped in a large pile (the leach dump) and sulfuric acid is added to maintain a low pH

  • The liquid emerging from the bottom of the pile is enriched in dissolved metals and is transported to a precipitation plant

  • Bacterial oxidation of Fe2+ (ferrousiron, 2가철)is critical in microbial leaching as Fe3+ (ferriciron, 3가철) itself can oxidize metals in the ores


Microbialleaching oflow-gradecopperores



Microbial leaching of ores

  • Microbes are also used in the leaching of uranium and gold ores

Gold bioleaching tanks in Ghana



Microbes as products for nanotechnology

  • Microbes for nanotechnology

    • e.g., use of diatom 3-D structures as templates

    • e.g., use magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria in magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) applications and as probes to detect cancer


Biotechnological applications:

Biosensors

  • Living microbes, enzymes or organelles are linked to electrodes to detect specific substances

    • detection is done by converting biological reaction products into electrical currents

  • Have a broad range of applications


생명공학에 필요한새로운 유전자 탐색


Mining genomes

  • Gene mining

    • The process of isolating potentially useful novel genes from the environment without culturing the organism

    • To do so, DNA (or RNA) is directly isolated from the environment, cloned into appropriate expression vectors, and the library screened for activities of interest

* Metagenome

- The total genome of all the cells present in a particular environment


Metagenomicsearch for useful genes in the environment



Transgenic organisms

  • Transgenic organism

    • An organism that contains a gene from another organism

    • Also refers to genetically engineered orgamisms whether or not they contain foreign DNA

  • Engineering metabolic pathways in bacteria

  • Genetic engineering of animals

  • Gene therapy in humans

  • Transgenic plants in agriculture


Transgenic organisms:

Engineering metabolic pathways in bacteria

  • The production of small metabolites by genetic engineering typically involves multiple genes that must be coordinately expressed

  • Pathway engineering

    • The process of assembling a new or improved biochemical pathway using genes from one or more organisms


Transgenic organisms:

Genetic engineering of animals

  • Genetic engineering can be used to develop transgenic animals

  • Transgenic animals are useful for

    • Producing human proteins that require specific posttranslational modifications

    • Medical research

    • Improving livestock and other food animals for human consumption



Fast-growing, genetically engineered salmon


Transgenic organisms:

Gene theraphy in humans

  • Gene therapy: treatment of a disease caused by a dysfunctional gene by introducing a functional copy of the gene

  • Many human genetic diseases are known and gene therapy holds promise for tackling these diseases

  • The use of recombinant DNA technology and conventional genetic studies allows for the localization of particular genetic defects to specific regions of the genome


Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Many successes in plant genetic engineering

    - Several transgenic plants are in agricultural production

  • The plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can be used to introduce DNA into plants

  • A. tumefaciens contains the Ti plasmid, which is responsible for virulence

  • The Ti plasmid contains genes that mobilize DNA for transfer to the plant


Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • The plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can be used to introduce DNA into plants

  • A. tumefaciens contains the Ti plasmid, which is responsible for virulence

  • The Ti plasmid contains genes that mobilize DNA for transfer to the plant


Production of transgenic plants using A. tumefaciens


Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Tobacco was the first genetically modified (GM) plant to be grown commercially

    • 2005 estimates that > 1 billion acres of agricultural land are growing GM crops

  • Several areas are targeted for genetic improvements in plants including herbicide, insect, and microbial disease resistance as well as improved product quality


Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Plants are engineered to have herbicide resistance to protect them from herbicides applied to kill weeds (e.g., glyphosphate)



Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • One of the most widely used approaches for genetically engineering insect resistance in plants involves the introduction of genes encoding the toxic protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin)


Transgenic plant with insect resistance


Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Improving product quality is another target area of genetic engineering of plants

    • e.g., spoilage delay

  • Transgenic plants can also be employed to produce human proteins for medical use

    • e.g., insulin, interferon, antibodies, vaccines


Impacts of microbial biotechnology

  • Industrial ecology

    • Concerned with tracking flow of elements and compounds through natural world (biosphere) and social world (anthrosphere)

  • Microbiologists must:

    • Understand potential impacts of new products and processes on the broader society as well as on microbiology

    • Communicate effectively with the various “societal stakeholders” about the immediate and longer-term potential impacts of biotechnologies