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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물. 강의자료 ppt-9. 2011-1 학기. 미생물 은 어떤 존재인가?. 생명공학 (biotechnology) 의 주체인 미생물. Biotechnology ( 생명공학 , 생물공학 ). Use of organisms to form useful products (in industrial, medical, or agricultural applications) . Products of Microbial Biotechnology.

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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물




Biotechnology (생명공학, 생물공학)

Use of organisms to form useful products (inindustrial, medical, or agricultural applications)


식품 및 식품 첨가물 생산: 발효 식품, 아미노산, 미생물 식품으로 이용(버섯, 미역, 김 등)

  • 건강(영양)보조제 생산: 식이섬유, 비타민, 미생물 건강(영양)보조제로 이용(유산균, 클로렐라, 스피루리나, 효모 등)
  • 의약품 생산: 항생물질, 호르몬, 스테로이드등
  • 효소 생산: 산업용 효소, 세제 첨가용 효소
  • 화학제품 생산: 바이오폴리머(생분해 플라스틱 등), 시트르산, 아세톤, 글리세린, 에틸알코홀, 초산 등
  • 연료 생산: 메탄가스, 에틸알코홀, 수소 가스 등
  • 살충제 생산:미생물 살충제
  • 광물 정제:구리, 금, 납 등

Products for food industry

  • Wine
  • Brewing, distilling, and commodity Alcohol
  • Vinegar
  • Citric acid and other organic compounds
  • Yeastas a food and food supplement
  • Mushrooms, spirulina, chlorella, edible seaweeds as a food source

Vitamins and amino acids: Amino acids

  • Amino Acids
    • Used as feed additives in the food industry
    • Used as nutritional supplements in nutraceutical industry
    • Used as starting materials in the chemical industry
    • Examples include
      • Glutamicacid (MSG)
      • Aspartic acid and phenylalanine (aspartame [Nutrasweet])
      • Lysine (food additives)

Vitamins and amino acids: Vitamins

  • Production of vitamins is second only to antibiotics in terms of total pharmaceutical sales
    • Vitamin B12 produced exclusively by microorganisms
      • Deficiency results in pernicious anemia (악성빈혈)
    • Riboflavin can also be produced by microbes




Steroids and other biotransformations

  • Steroids
    • Are derivatives of sterols
    • Are important animal hormones with medicinal uses
      • Corticosteroids reduce inflammation, and help control allergies, inflammation and arthritis
      • Estrogens and androgenic steroids play a role in human fertility and can stimulate production of muscle mass
    • Production of steroids by chemical process is costly
      • Use microbes to reduce cost (biotransformation)



Enzymes as industrial products

  • Exoenzymes
    • Enzymes that are produced in such large amounts that they are excreted into the medium instead of being held within the cell; they are extracellular
    • Can digest insoluble polymers such as cellulose, protein, and starch

Enzymes as industrial products

  • Enzymes are produced from fungi and bacteria
    • Bacterial proteases are used in laundry detergents (can also contain amylases, lipases, and reductases)
      • Isolated from alkaliphilic bacteria
  • Amylases and glucoamylasesare also commercially important
    • Produce high-fructose syrup

Enzymes as industrial products

  • Extremozymes
    • Enzymes that function at some environmental extreme (i.e., pH or temperature)
    • Produced by extremophiles
  • Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB)
    • Bioplastic
  • Dextrin (a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen), cyclodextrin, and other polysaccharides
    • Used to modify flow characteristics of liquids and to serve as gelling agents

Bacterial plastics

  • The recalcitrance of plastics has fueled research efforts into a biodegradable alternative (biopolymers)

Bacterial plastics




Bacterial plastics

Shampoo bottle made of

the PHB/PHV copolymer



  • Used for emulsification, increasing detergency, wetting and phase dispersion, and solubilization
  • Important in bioremediation, oil spill dispersion, and enhancing oil recovery
  • Many have antibacterial and antifungal activity; some inactivate enveloped viruses

Commodity alcohol production

  • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes
    • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement

Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA


Commodity alcohol production

  • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes
    • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement

Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA


Production of petroleum by some microbes

Certain green algae

Botryococcusbraunii excreting oil droplets


Microbial insecticides (biopesticides)

  • Biological agents, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, or their components, which can be used to kill a susceptible insect

Microbial insecticides (biopesticides):

  • Bacteria as biopesticides
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
    • Produces a parasporal body duringsporulation as an intracellular protein toxin crystal
    • Parasporalbody
      • Acts as microbial insecticide (Bt toxin) for specific groups of insects
    • Bt toxin
      • used for over 40 years
      • unlike chemical insecticides, does not accumulate in environment

Microbial leaching of ores

  • In microbial leaching, low-grade ore is dumped in a large pile (the leach dump) and sulfuric acid is added to maintain a low pH
  • The liquid emerging from the bottom of the pile is enriched in dissolved metals and is transported to a precipitation plant
  • Bacterial oxidation of Fe2+ (ferrousiron, 2가철)is critical in microbial leaching as Fe3+ (ferriciron, 3가철) itself can oxidize metals in the ores

Microbial leaching of ores

  • Microbes are also used in the leaching of uranium and gold ores

Gold bioleaching tanks in Ghana


Microbes as products for nanotechnology

  • Microbes for nanotechnology
    • e.g., use of diatom 3-D structures as templates
    • e.g., use magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria in magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) applications and as probes to detect cancer

Biotechnological applications:


  • Living microbes, enzymes or organelles are linked to electrodes to detect specific substances
    • detection is done by converting biological reaction products into electrical currents
  • Have a broad range of applications

Mining genomes

  • Gene mining
    • The process of isolating potentially useful novel genes from the environment without culturing the organism
    • To do so, DNA (or RNA) is directly isolated from the environment, cloned into appropriate expression vectors, and the library screened for activities of interest

* Metagenome

- The total genome of all the cells present in a particular environment


Transgenic organisms

  • Transgenic organism
    • An organism that contains a gene from another organism
    • Also refers to genetically engineered orgamisms whether or not they contain foreign DNA
  • Engineering metabolic pathways in bacteria
  • Genetic engineering of animals
  • Gene therapy in humans
  • Transgenic plants in agriculture

Transgenic organisms:

Engineering metabolic pathways in bacteria

  • The production of small metabolites by genetic engineering typically involves multiple genes that must be coordinately expressed
  • Pathway engineering
    • The process of assembling a new or improved biochemical pathway using genes from one or more organisms

Transgenic organisms:

Genetic engineering of animals

  • Genetic engineering can be used to develop transgenic animals
  • Transgenic animals are useful for
    • Producing human proteins that require specific posttranslational modifications
    • Medical research
    • Improving livestock and other food animals for human consumption

Transgenic organisms:

Gene theraphy in humans

  • Gene therapy: treatment of a disease caused by a dysfunctional gene by introducing a functional copy of the gene
  • Many human genetic diseases are known and gene therapy holds promise for tackling these diseases
  • The use of recombinant DNA technology and conventional genetic studies allows for the localization of particular genetic defects to specific regions of the genome

Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Many successes in plant genetic engineering

- Several transgenic plants are in agricultural production

  • The plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can be used to introduce DNA into plants
  • A. tumefaciens contains the Ti plasmid, which is responsible for virulence
  • The Ti plasmid contains genes that mobilize DNA for transfer to the plant

Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • The plant pathogen Agrobacteriumtumefaciens can be used to introduce DNA into plants
  • A. tumefaciens contains the Ti plasmid, which is responsible for virulence
  • The Ti plasmid contains genes that mobilize DNA for transfer to the plant

Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Tobacco was the first genetically modified (GM) plant to be grown commercially
    • 2005 estimates that > 1 billion acres of agricultural land are growing GM crops
  • Several areas are targeted for genetic improvements in plants including herbicide, insect, and microbial disease resistance as well as improved product quality

Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Plants are engineered to have herbicide resistance to protect them from herbicides applied to kill weeds (e.g., glyphosphate)

Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • One of the most widely used approaches for genetically engineering insect resistance in plants involves the introduction of genes encoding the toxic protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin)

Transgenic organisms:

Transgenic plants in agriculture

  • Improving product quality is another target area of genetic engineering of plants
    • e.g., spoilage delay
  • Transgenic plants can also be employed to produce human proteins for medical use
    • e.g., insulin, interferon, antibodies, vaccines

Impacts of microbial biotechnology

  • Industrial ecology
    • Concerned with tracking flow of elements and compounds through natural world (biosphere) and social world (anthrosphere)
  • Microbiologists must:
    • Understand potential impacts of new products and processes on the broader society as well as on microbiology
    • Communicate effectively with the various “societal stakeholders” about the immediate and longer-term potential impacts of biotechnologies