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Synthesis of pyridine 1 – By heating the hydrochloride of pentamethylene diamine and oxidizing the product piperidine with concentrated sulphuric acid at 300 cº. 2 – from 1,5 – dicarbonyl compounds and ammonia : -.

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Synthesis of pyridine

1 – By heating the hydrochloride of pentamethylene diamine and oxidizing the product piperidine with concentrated sulphuric acid at 300 cº.

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2 – from 1,5 – dicarbonyl compounds and ammonia : -

Ammonia react with 1,5 – dicarbonyl compounds to give 1,4 dihydropyridine which are easily dehydrogenated to pyridines .The reaction proceed via loss of two molecules of water .

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EtOOC -

3- From ethyl acetoacetate two mole with dichloromethane in presences of ammonia .

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Basicity increase

Chemical reactions

Basicity of pyridine

Pyridine behaves as abase , It react with acids to from fairly stable salt . The reason for the basic character of pyridine is that the nitrogen lone pair being in sp2 hybrid orbital is not involve in the delocalized π molecular orbital .It is readily available for the formation of a new p N – H bond with proton .

Pyridine is a stronger base than pyrrole in which the basicity is reduced by delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair

Pyrrole<Pyridine<aliphatic amine

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Addition and ring – opening reaction

The acid derivatives combine with the pyridine to give a quaternary salt (e.g 2) .Which have been isolated as acidchlorides .This salt react with hydroxyl group yielding the Acyl derivative ; the liberated acid is taken up as the pyridine salt (3) .Quaternary salts as (2) are immediately decomposed by water to pyridine hydrochloride and the organic acid but with etheylcyanoacetate the ring open yielding (4)

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The ring is comparatively easily opened by nucleophilic reagent 2,4 – Dinitrophenylpyridinum chloride (5) is a colourless crystalline solid which is formed from pyridine and 2,4 – dinitrochlorobenzene at 100 cº this reaction is reversed at 200 cº with water at 150 cº yield pyridine hydrochloride and 2,4 – dinitrophenol , but with cold aqueous alkali a deep red compound (6) is formed which on successive treatment with dilute aniline and acid yields 2,4 – dinitroaniline and glutaconic aldehyde dianil (7) .

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HO - reagent 2,4 – Dinitrophenylpyridinum chloride (5) is a colourless crystalline solid which is formed from pyridine and 2,4 – dinitrochlorobenzene at 100 cº this reaction is reversed at 200 cº with water at 150 cº yield pyridine hydrochloride and 2,4 – dinitrophenol , but with cold aqueous alkali a deep red compound (6) is formed which on successive treatment with dilute aniline and acid yields 2,4 – dinitroaniline and glutaconic aldehyde dianil (7) .

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Reduction reagent 2,4 – Dinitrophenylpyridinum chloride (5) is a colourless crystalline solid which is formed from pyridine and 2,4 – dinitrochlorobenzene at 100 cº this reaction is reversed at 200 cº with water at 150 cº yield pyridine hydrochloride and 2,4 – dinitrophenol , but with cold aqueous alkali a deep red compound (6) is formed which on successive treatment with dilute aniline and acid yields 2,4 – dinitroaniline and glutaconic aldehyde dianil (7) .

Pyridine is easily reduce to hexahydropyridin or piperidine by a variety of method including hydrogen over Raney nickel , rubidium at 60 ºc palladium charcoal with acetic acid .1,4 – dihydropyridine has however been obtained by the reduction of pyridine with trimethylsilane .

The pyridine is cleaved by ultrasonic waves giving acetylene and hydrogen cyanide .

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( + ) reagent 2,4 – Dinitrophenylpyridinum chloride (5) is a colourless crystalline solid which is formed from pyridine and 2,4 – dinitrochlorobenzene at 100 cº this reaction is reversed at 200 cº with water at 150 cº yield pyridine hydrochloride and 2,4 – dinitrophenol , but with cold aqueous alkali a deep red compound (6) is formed which on successive treatment with dilute aniline and acid yields 2,4 – dinitroaniline and glutaconic aldehyde dianil (7) .

( + )

( + )

N

N

N

N

( + )

( + )

( + )

N

=

O

N

N

N

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

( - )

( - )

( - )

Electrophilic subistitution reactions .

Toward electrophilic subistitution pyridine resembles a deactivated benzene derivative it is often compared to nitrobenzene in reactivity

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Attack at reagent 2,4 – Dinitrophenylpyridinum chloride (5) is a colourless crystalline solid which is formed from pyridine and 2,4 – dinitrochlorobenzene at 100 cº this reaction is reversed at 200 cº with water at 150 cº yield pyridine hydrochloride and 2,4 – dinitrophenol , but with cold aqueous alkali a deep red compound (6) is formed which on successive treatment with dilute aniline and acid yields 2,4 – dinitroaniline and glutaconic aldehyde dianil (7) . β position

Attack at γ position

when the reaction take place the attack at β position can be understood in term of the resonance forms shown above in which ( α ) and ( γ ) position have a positive charge , this orientation can be understood also by comparison of the intermediate resulting from attack at various position

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three resonance can be written for each intermediate but one of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

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Nucleophilic subistitution in pyridine of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

The reactivity of pyridine toward nucleophilic subistitution is so great even the powerfully basic hydride ion , H- , can be displaced .Two important example of this reaction are amination by sodium amide and Alkylation by organolithium compounds .

The attack take place at α – position because the positive charge arises in α – position

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Pyrylium salt and pyrans of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

Very few simple derivatives of the aromatic pyrylium cation (1) are known , although benzopyrylium are widely distributed as flower petal colouring matters .The potentially very reactive 4-pyran (3) has been obtained recently and the pyranes ( 4 and 5 ) are well known .2,3 – Dihydro – 4 – pyran (6) has received some attention now it is easily available , and tetrahydropyran ( 7 ) is used as a synthetic intermediate .The sulphur analogues of these compounds have received little attention until very recently

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C of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

H ClO

0

0 c

4

+ -

+

-2O

C

H

=

O

C

H

C

H

=

O

H

N

a

O

-H

O

C

H

2

H

O

-

ClO

4

sod . salt of glutaconic aldehydeOxonium salt

4

-

3

5

ClO

4

2

O

6

1

( 8 )

Pyrylium perchlorate

Pyrylium salts

The sodium salt of glutaconic aldehyde with perchloric acid at – 20 cº gives ared oxonium salt , which on standing at o cº cyclizes to the colourless pyrylium perchlorate (8) .This perchlorate has received little attention ,but with ammonia it yields 2,4,6 – triphenylpyrylium ferrichloride ( 9 ) can be prepared easily . It is stable in acid solution and nitrates . with ammonia it yields 2,4,6 – triphenylpyridine while with alkali the ring is opened , yielding (II) through the intermediate (10 )

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P of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

h

P

h

-

FeCl

4

NH

+

3

P

h

O

P

h

(A)

P

h

N

P

h

2,4,6 - triphenyl

Pyrylium ferricchloride

NaHCO

3 NaOAC orr

aq ( B )

P

h

P

h

C

H

C

H

C

H

2

P

h

P

h

O

O

C

C

=

O

O

H

P

h

P

h

P

h

Ph

H

+

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

2

FeCl

2

2

3

O

=

C

-

P

h

C

=

O

C

=

O

P

h

-

C

=

O

P

h

P

h

phenyl -

1 - phenyl -

methyl ketone

2 - benzoyl ethylene

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P of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

h

Ph

H

+

C

H

C

H

-

-

C

H

C

H

C

H

+

C

H

2

FeCl

2

2

3

C

=

O

C

=

O

P

h

-

C

=

O

O

=

C

-

P

h

P

h

P

h

keto form

P

h

P

h

H

C

C

H

H

C

C

H

C

H

C

H

-H

O

2

C

-

O

H

H

O

-

C

C

C

P

h

P

h

P

h

P

h

O

enol form

P

h

P

h

C

H

C

H

H

C

C

H

( A )

H

C

C

H

+

-

FeCl

4

NH

C

C

-

P

h

3

C

C

-

P

h

P

h

+

O

P

h

O

-

H

NH

2

Mechanism

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P of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

h

P

h

P

h

C

H

C

H

H

C

C

H

H

C

C

H

-H

O

2

+

C

C

-

P

h

C

C

-

P

h

+

P

h

+

P

h

H

O

:

P

h

P

h

O

H

N

N

N

H

H

H

H

2

P

h

P

h

P

h

N

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P of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

h

P

h

P

h

D

ACDO

+

H

D

O

A

C

+

O

A

C

5

-

( + ACO

)

P

h

O

P

h

+

P

h

O

P

h

P

h

O

P

h

Reaction of pyrylium cation

A–Reaction with electrophilic reagent 2,4,6 –Triphenyl-

pyrylium undergoes exchange at 3 – and 5 – position in hot deuteroacetic acid

B – No nitration of pyrylium are known

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Synthesis of α – pyrones of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

6 – hydroxyl – α – pyron can be prepared by heating a glutaconic acid with acetic anhydride .

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γ - of these in the case of attack at the γ ( or α ) leaves positive charge on nitrogen this must be regarded as an unfavorable structure as compared to one in which carbon has a positive charge for nitrogen more electronegative than carbon .

Synthesis of γ – Pyrones

1- γ – pyrone may be prepared by heating chelidonic acid just above its melting point .chelidonic acid may be prepared from acetone and ethyl oxalate

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2 – The dimethyl γ – pyrone may be prepared from the copper salt of ethylacetoacetate as follows

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α copper salt of ethylacetoacetate as follows

Reaction of α­ and γ – Pyrone .

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O copper salt of ethylacetoacetate as follows

O

C

H

O

C

H

3

3

CH

I

3

8 -

HClO

4

-

I

+

O

+

C

H

C

H

..

O

O

-H

I

C

H

C

H

C

H

C

H

3

3

3

3

3

3

-

ClO

4

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O copper salt of ethylacetoacetate as follows

O

B

r

12 -

Br

2 / ACOH

O

C

H

C

H

O

C

H

C

H

3

3

3

3

3 -bromo - 4 - pyrone

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lec8 copper salt of ethylacetoacetate as follows


Sulphur – containing analogues copper salt of ethylacetoacetate as follows

4 H – Thiopyran ( 1 ) has been obtained in asimilar way to its oxygen analogue and has b.p 30 cº at 12 mm it is readily oxidized by chlorine to thiapyrylium (2) chloride , and an alternative way of making this class of compound is outlined 2,4,6 triphenylthia pyrylium perchlorate (3) with phenyllithum gives the deep purple 1,2,4,6 – tetraphenylthia (IV) benzene (4) . On standing it isomerizes to colurless 4H - thiapyran (5)

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1- methyl – 3,5 – diphenylthia(IV)benzene 1- oxide (6) has been obtained as indicated below .It has m.p 148º and can be sublimed at near this temperature at 0 – 0.5 mm pressure .The compound is therefore very much more stable than (IV) benzene such as (4)

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