Authoritarian states
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Authoritarian States. 1. Conservative Authoritarianism. Anti-democratic Believed in avoiding change Limited in power Conservative authoritarianism alive in Eastern Europe, Spain and Portugal no tradition of self-government torn by ethnic conflict

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Authoritarian States

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Authoritarian States


1. Conservative Authoritarianism

  • Anti-democratic

  • Believed in avoiding change

  • Limited in power

  • Conservative authoritarianism alive in Eastern Europe, Spain and Portugal

    • no tradition of self-government

    • torn by ethnic conflict

    • the rich and the church needed help from dictators


Radical Totalitarian Dictators

  • Appear in Soviet Union-Germany-Italy

  • Soviet Union- Lenin/Stalin

  • Germany-Hitler

  • Italy-Mussolini

  • Leaders wanted:

    • conflict power to the state worship of violence

  • Leaders did not want:

    • liberal values economic freedom large middle class


2. The Political Spectrum

  • Soviet UnionNazi Germany

  • leftright

  • Seized private propertyallowed private property

  • Crushed middle classkept middle class

  • For working classfor capitalist

  • CommunismFascism


Stalin’s Soviet Union


3. The Early Years

  • 1921- Russian economy ruined

  • Lenin’s New Economic Policy gives peasants economic freedom

  • Agriculture and Manufacturing sectors grow

  • 4-1924- Lenin dies and Stalin takes power from Trotsky

    • Trotsky wanted world wide revolution

    • Stalin wanted “socialism in one country”


5. Five Year Plans

  • Stalin declares economic war on kulaks ( rich peasants )

  • Stalin “collectivizes” peasant lands

    • State owns all land

      6. Stalin establishes master plans for heavy industry to be carried out in 5 year increments

    • manufacturing improves dramatically

    • poor harvests result in famines

    • workers suffer low standards of living


6. Life under Stalin

  • Education stressed-skilled elite emerge

  • Women gain equality at a price

    • divorce and abortion made easier

    • women urged to work outside home

    • all professions open to women

    • women must work to support families

  • Previous art replaced by state forms

  • History rewritten

  • Religion persecuted


7. The Great Purges

  • Stalin purges ( to rid ) old party faithful

  • People charged with crimes against state are tried in large show trials and “confess”

  • 8 killed or sent to work camps

  • Hysteria grips country

  • New, younger converts educated in technical schools take power under Stalin


Mussolini and Fascism in Italy


8. Mussolini takes power

  • Catholics, conservatives and landowners resist democracy

  • Wartime reforms not delivered to workers

  • Italy upset with war settlement

  • Russian revolution inspires socialists

  • Mussolini’s fascists ( The Black Shirts ) uses violence against socialists

  • Mussolini forces king to name him head of government with march on Rome


9. Mussolini in Action

  • Fascists fix elections and kill socialist leader- Matteoti

  • Mussolini builds a fascist one party Italy but not a totalitarian state

    • conservatives still control army, economy and state

    • Church supports Mussolini

    • Women suppressed

    • Jews left alone


Hitler and Nazism in Germany


10. Roots of Nazism

  • Nationalism

    • Germans needed “living space”

  • Capitalism and liberalism = excessive individualism

  • Jews and Marxists lost the war for Germany

  • Germans are a superior race-Darwinist

  • Need for a strong leader


Warm Up 3-19

Where do these two posters come from?

What are each one about?


COVER PAGE OF GERMAN EDITIONS OF MEIN KAMPF WRITTEN IN 1924 WHILE HITLER WAS IMPRISONED FOR STAGING A REVOLT


NAZI PROPAGANDA DEPICTING THE IDEAL ARYAN MEMBER OF THE MASTER RACE

NAZI PROPAGANDA DEPICTING THE IDEAL GERMAN ARYAN


EXAMPLES OF NAZI ANTISEMITISM

FINAL SOLUTION TO THE JEWISH PROBLEM


TREATY OF VERSAILLES,

EUROPE

1914 1919


TREATY OF VERSAILLES,

GERMANY


11. Hitler’s route to power

  • Veteran of WWI

  • Begins German Workers Party

  • Jailed after failed attempt to overthrow Weimar Republic

  • Writes Mein Kampf

  • 1924-1929 forms National Socialist German Workers Party ( Nazi Party ) and takes advantage of depression to build party

  • 1932- Nazis become largest party in Germany

  • 1933- Hitler named chancellor of Germany when socialists and communists split coalition


Hitler entrenches

  • Reichstag ( German legislature ) Building fire blamed on Communists

  • Hitler outlaws Communist Party and pushes through the Enabling Act

  • His SS troops murder old Nazi thugs and thus gains control of military

  • Secret police ( gestapo ) purges opponents

  • Nuremberg laws deprives Jews of citizenships

  • Kristallnacht is night of violence against Jews


12.How did Hitler keep power?

  • Propaganda

  • Fiery speeches

  • Involvement of Youth

  • Control of all sectors of life, culture

  • Higher standard of living

  • Greater opportunity

  • Nationalism


KRISTALLNACHT: HITLER BEGINS HIS EXTERMINATION CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE JEWS


VOLKSWAGEN: A CAR FOR ALMOST EVERY GERMAN FAMILY


Nazi expansion and W.W. II


13. Nazi Aggression

  • Hitler tells Europe he wants to overturn Versailles treaty using “legal means”

  • 1933-Withdraws from League of Nations

  • 1935-establishes draft

  • 1936 -occupies demilitarized zone of the Rhineland


German Aggression

  • Aggression

    • Reoccupied the Rhineland, 1936

    • Allied with Italy & Japan (Comintern Pact)

    • Declared the Anschluss – annexed Austria unopposed


14. European Appeasement

  • British sign naval pact with Germans

  • French do not resist Rhineland occupation by Germans

  • British feel guilty over Versailles Treaty

  • No one wants another world war

  • Many feel German demands to be “sensible”

  • Germans seen as a buffer against communism


Warm Up 3-25

  • How was the US an appeaser?


GERMANY, 1933


FEAR OF COMMUNISM


HORRORS OF WWI


15. Final Moves before WWII

  • 1935-Italy attacks Ethiopia

  • Italy joins Germany in backing fascists in Spain

  • 1938-Hitler annexes Austria and demands part of Czechoslovakia

  • British cave in to German demands

  • Hitler occupies all of Czechoslovakia

  • 1939-Germany and Russia sign non-aggression pact

  • Germany invades Poland

  • Britain and France declare war on Germany-1939


HAILE SELLASSIE: EMPEROR OF ETHIOPIA

“SHOULD IT HAPPEN THAT A STRONG GOVERNMENT FINDS IT MAY WITH IMPUNITY DESTROY A WEAK PEOPLE, THEN THE HOUR STRIKES FOR THAT WEAK PEOPLE TO APPEAL TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS TO GIVE ITS JUDGMENT IN ALL FREEDOM.”

SELLASSIE PLEADS FOR HELP FROM THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 1936


TESTING GROUND,

THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR: 1936 - 1939


Nazi-Soviet N.A. Pact

  • 1939

  • Public implications

  • Private agreement

    • Allignment

    • Division of Poland and Eastern Europe


HITLER INVADES POLAND:SEPTEMBER 1, 1939


THE POLISH ARMY WAS NO MATCH FOR THE GERMANS


16. The Early War Years

  • Germans use blitzkrieg ( speed and force) to gain early victories

  • Poland and France defeated early

  • Bombing of Britain begins

  • Germany turns towards Russia in 1941 but stopped by winter

  • After Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Hitler declares war on the U.S.


MAGINOT LINE


Blitzkrieg – Spring 1940

  • Previously

    • Austria

    • Sudentenland

    • Czechoslovakia

    • Poland

  • “Lightening War”

    • Norway

    • Denmark

    • Netherlands

    • Belgium

    • Luxembourg

    • France!!!

  • All in under 10 weeks


TOOLS OF THE BLITZKRIEG


CUTAWAY VIEW OF THE MAGINOT LINE


Dunkirk

  • Surrender or Retreat by Sea

  • British RAF tried to keep the skies clear

  • Every available ship or boat in Southern England transported trapped soldiers

  • From May 26-June 4, 338,000 soldiers were transferred


GREAT BRITAIN GETS A NEW PRIME MINISTER: WINSTON CHURCHILL


TO CONQUER GREAT BRITIAN HITLER WOULD HAVE TO CROSS THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. FIRST HE WOULD HAVE TO DESTROY THE RAF (ROYAL AIR FORCE) AND GAIN CONTROL OF THE AIR.


STATISTICS OF THE BATTLEOF BRITAIN


PLANES OF THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN

  • BRITISH SPITFIRE FIGHTER


RUSSIAN MIXED TANK AND SKI INFANTRY TEAM ADVANCE ON GERMAN POSITIONS.


SOLDIERS KILLED, WOUNDED, CAPTURED OR MISSING FROM JUNE 1941 TO JAN 31, 1942. USSR NUMBERS INCLUDE 3.35 MILLION SOLDIERS CAPTURED


THE END AT STALINGRAD GERMAN PRISONERS, ONLY 5,000 OF THE 250,000 CAPTURED RETURNED AFTER THE WAR


17. German “Maintenance”

  • Nordics treated with preference-Slavs treated as sub-human

  • Poland evacuated for Germans

  • Prisoners of war sent to Germany to work as slaves

  • Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses and communists exterminated


18. The Grand Alliance

  • Russia, Britain, and U.S. form alliance

  • USA concentrates on Europe first

  • Americans/British think military then political

  • Allies demand unconditional surrender

  • USA sends aid to Britain and Russia

  • British and Russians resist German attacks

  • Resistance groups snipe at Germans


19. The Tide Turns

  • Russians win at Stalingrad and take offensive on eastern front

  • Allies win pivotal battles in South Pacific

  • British drive Germans out of Northern Africa

  • Italians surrender but German continues fight in Italy

  • Bombing of Germany keeps them fighting

  • Germany caught in vise by Allies finally surrenders on May 7, 1945


Operation Barbarossa: USSR

  • June 22, 1941

  • Why?

  • Surprise!

    • Luftwaffe success

  • Scorched-earth policy

  • Stalin requests Allied aid, Aug 1941

    • North Route

    • South Route


ALTHOUGH THE USSR HAD MORE OF EVERYTHING MOST OF THEIR EQUIPMENT WAS OUT OF DATE AND COULD NOT STAND UP TO MODERN GERMAN WEAPONS; BUT NEW MODELS OF TANKS WERE SUPERIOR TO GERMAN WEAPONS

USSR


The Atomic Question…


TO SAVE LIVES AND END THE WAR QUICKLY PRESIDENT TRUMAN GAVE THE ORDER TO USE THE ATOMIC BOMB ON JAPAN

APRIL 12TH 1945, VICE PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN TAKES THE OATH TO BECOME PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES


THE FIRST ATOMIC BOMB WAS DROPPED ON THE CITY OF HIROSHIMA

AUGUST 6TH, 1945, 70,000 KILLED AND EVEN MORE WOUNDED


A SECOND ATOMIC BOMB WAS DROPPED ON NAGASAKI AND THE JAPANESE SURRENDERED

AUGUST 9TH, 40,000 KILLED


US Drops the A-bomb

  • August 6, 1945 @ Hiroshima

  • August 9, 1945 @ Nagasaki

  • September 2, 1945 Japan officially surrenders


The costs of war

  • Bloodiest war in human history

  • Over 50 million dead

  • Land across Europe and Asia was destroyed

  • Gave totalitarian leaders a chance to eliminate civilians regarded as a threat


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