The scientific method chapter 1 section 2
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The Scientific Method Chapter 1 Section 2. Checks for Understanding. 0807.Inq.1 Design and conduct an open-ended scientific investigation to answer a question that includes a control and appropriate variables.

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The Scientific Method Chapter 1 Section 2

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The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

The Scientific MethodChapter 1 Section 2


Checks for understanding

Checks for Understanding

  • 0807.Inq.1 Design and conduct an open-ended scientific investigation to answer a question that includes a control and appropriate variables.

  • 0807.Inq.2 Identify tools and techniques needed to gather, organize, analyze, and interpret data collected from a moderately complex scientific investigation.


The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

I can identify the steps used in the scientific method.

I can establish a testable hypothesis.

I can explain how the scientific method is used to answer questions.

I can explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems.


The scientific method

The scientific method

A way to answer questions and solve problems


Step 1 ask a question

Step #1 Ask a Question ?

Scientist often ask questions after

making an

observation


Using the scientific method requires that one be a good observer

Using the scientific method requires that one be a good observer.

observationinference

involves a logical conclusion drawn from available evidence and prior knowledge

uses the five

senses to gather information


Measurements

Measurements

  • Observations made with tools such as meter sticks, graduated cylinders, thermometers and stopwatches

  • Observations should be accurately recorded so that scientists can use the information in future investigations

http://www.bishopoconnell.org/pages/sitepage.cfm?page=4486

http://www.pa.uky.edu/sciworks/xtra/theq2.htm

http://lightandshadows.net/20minutes.html


The skeptical chemist

Published “The Sceptical Chymist”

The Skeptical Chemist

(in 1661)

…stated that scientific speculation

was worthless unless it was supported

by experimental evidence.

Robert Boyle

This principle led to the development of the scientific method.


The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

“My mother the eye doctor”

Observation or Inference?

The piece of paper is a note from the mother of the batter.

One player is holding a bat.

The player holding the bat is talking.

One of the teams is called the “Reds.”

One player is a catcher.

Names are written on the uniforms.

The players in the picture are on opposite teams.

The adult is the umpire.

The adult is holding a piece of paper.

The mother of the batter is an optometrist or opthalmologist (an eye doctor).

One player is wearing a catcher’s mask.


Step 2 research the problem

Step #2 Research the problem

  • Learn more about

    your subject

  • Scientist specialize in an area and have learned a great deal of knowledge about it


Step 3 form a hypothesis

Step #3 Form aHypothesis

  • Possible explanation or answer to a question

  • Predicting what you think your experiment will show


The if then format

The If-Then Format

  • Scientist usually state predictions in an “If…, then…,because…., format

  • Example:

    If you compare hand brakes and coaster brakes on the same bicycles, then the hand brakes will be more effective at stopping the bikes quickly, because they apply pressure directly to the wheel hubs.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/mix_master_b/2983393331/


Step 4 design an experiment to test your hypothesis

Step # 4 Design an experimentto test yourhypothesis

  • Find out if you are correct


A scientific experiment

variable

any factor that

could influence

the result

A Scientific Experiment

procedure

the order of events

in an experiment;

the “recipe”

Experiments must be controlled; they

must have two set-ups that must differ

by only one variable.

The conclusion must be based on the data.


A controlled experiment

A Controlled Experiment?


Step 5 record and analyze your data

Step # 5 Record and analyze your data


The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

Data

Pieces of information acquired through experimentation

Observations are also called data.

There are two types of data.

qualitative data quantitative data

descriptions; measurements;

no numbersmust have numbers


Step 6 state a conclusion

Step # 6 State a conclusion

  • Was your

    hypothesis

    correct?


Drawing conclusions

Drawing Conclusions

  • Results support hypothesis

  • Results do not support hypothesis

  • More information is needed

    Depending on your

    conclusion, you might ask

    a new question and gather

    more information or

    change the procedure


Step 7 communicate results

Step # 7 Communicate Results

  • Share your results accurately and honestly with others so they can reproduce and verify your data

www.jefftolbert.com/ communicate.htm


The metric system

The Metric System

  • Used by scientists all over the world!

  • Developed by France and known as the International System of Units (SI)

  • Units are based on the number 10

  • Help all scientists share and compare their observations and results


The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

Common SI Prefixes:

Measuring Length--the common SI measure of length is the meter (m). One meter = 39 inches (approx.)

Common conversions include: 1 km = 1000 m, 1 m = 100 cm, 1 m = 1000 mm, and 1 cm = 10 mm

Scientists use a meter stick to measure length or distance.


Observation inference

Observation & Inference

modified by Liz LaRosa www.middleschoolscience.com 2009, from original posted at:www.science-class.net/PowerPoints/Observation_Inference_8th.ppt


Observations

Observations

  • Any information collected with the senses.

    • Quantitative – measureable or countable

      • 3 meters long

      • 4 marbles

      • 50 kilograms

      • 35 degrees Celsius

  • Qualitative – describable, not measureable

    • red flowers

    • smells like fresh baked cookies

    • Tastes bitter

  • The skill of describing scientific events


  • Inference

    Inference

    • Conclusions or deductions based on observations.

    • The process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence.

      Practice:

    • Observations:

      • I hear people screaming

      • I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers

      • I see a lot of people

    • Inference = ?


    The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

    Look at these two sets of animal tracks.

    List 3 OBSERVATIONS

    Make an INFERENCE


    The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

    Now what do you think?

    Make 3 OBSERVATIONS

    Make an INFERENCE


    The scientific method chapter 1 section 2

    Now what do you think?

    Make 3 OBSERVATIONS

    Make an INFERENCE


    Activity page

    Activity Page

    www.middleschoolscience.com/footprints-isn.pdf

    In your science notebook, write your conclusion.


    Source of graphic http bob nap edu html evolution98 evol6 e html

    Source of graphic:http://bob.nap.edu/html/evolution98/evol6-e.html


    Tools used by scientist

    Tools Used by Scientist

    • To get the best measurements scientists need to use the proper tools

    • Stopwatches, metersticks, balances, thermometers, spring scales and graduated cylinders are some of these tools

    • Today you will learn how to properly measure volume


    Scientific tool for today

    Scientific Tool For Today

    • Today you will learn how to accurately measure volume

    • Measured in liters (usually milliliters)

    • Measured with a Graduated Cylinder

    • Need to measure in the middle – at the meniscus

    Video


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