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The Scientific Method Chapter 1 Section 2. Checks for Understanding. 0807.Inq.1 Design and conduct an open-ended scientific investigation to answer a question that includes a control and appropriate variables.

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checks for understanding
Checks for Understanding
  • 0807.Inq.1 Design and conduct an open-ended scientific investigation to answer a question that includes a control and appropriate variables.
  • 0807.Inq.2 Identify tools and techniques needed to gather, organize, analyze, and interpret data collected from a moderately complex scientific investigation.
slide4

I can identify the steps used in the scientific method.

I can establish a testable hypothesis.

I can explain how the scientific method is used to answer questions.

I can explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems.

the scientific method

The scientific method

A way to answer questions and solve problems

step 1 ask a question

Step #1 Ask a Question ?

Scientist often ask questions after

making an

observation

using the scientific method requires that one be a good observer
Using the scientific method requires that one be a good observer.

observation inference

involves a logical conclusion drawn from available evidence and prior knowledge

uses the five

senses to gather information

measurements
Measurements
  • Observations made with tools such as meter sticks, graduated cylinders, thermometers and stopwatches
  • Observations should be accurately recorded so that scientists can use the information in future investigations

http://www.bishopoconnell.org/pages/sitepage.cfm?page=4486

http://www.pa.uky.edu/sciworks/xtra/theq2.htm

http://lightandshadows.net/20minutes.html

the skeptical chemist

Published “The Sceptical Chymist”

The Skeptical Chemist

(in 1661)

…stated that scientific speculation

was worthless unless it was supported

by experimental evidence.

Robert Boyle

This principle led to the development of the scientific method.

slide10

“My mother the eye doctor”

Observation or Inference?

The piece of paper is a note from the mother of the batter.

One player is holding a bat.

The player holding the bat is talking.

One of the teams is called the “Reds.”

One player is a catcher.

Names are written on the uniforms.

The players in the picture are on opposite teams.

The adult is the umpire.

The adult is holding a piece of paper.

The mother of the batter is an optometrist or opthalmologist (an eye doctor).

One player is wearing a catcher’s mask.

step 2 research the problem
Step #2 Research the problem
  • Learn more about

your subject

  • Scientist specialize in an area and have learned a great deal of knowledge about it
step 3 form a hypothesis
Step #3 Form aHypothesis
  • Possible explanation or answer to a question
  • Predicting what you think your experiment will show
the if then format
The If-Then Format
  • Scientist usually state predictions in an “If…, then…,because…., format
  • Example:

If you compare hand brakes and coaster brakes on the same bicycles, then the hand brakes will be more effective at stopping the bikes quickly, because they apply pressure directly to the wheel hubs.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/mix_master_b/2983393331/

a scientific experiment

variable

any factor that

could influence

the result

A Scientific Experiment

procedure

the order of events

in an experiment;

the “recipe”

Experiments must be controlled; they

must have two set-ups that must differ

by only one variable.

The conclusion must be based on the data.

slide18

Data

Pieces of information acquired through experimentation

Observations are also called data.

There are two types of data.

qualitative data quantitative data

descriptions; measurements;

no numbers must have numbers

step 6 state a conclusion
Step # 6 State a conclusion
  • Was your

hypothesis

correct?

drawing conclusions
Drawing Conclusions
  • Results support hypothesis
  • Results do not support hypothesis
  • More information is needed

Depending on your

conclusion, you might ask

a new question and gather

more information or

change the procedure

step 7 communicate results
Step # 7 Communicate Results
  • Share your results accurately and honestly with others so they can reproduce and verify your data

www.jefftolbert.com/ communicate.htm

the metric system
The Metric System
  • Used by scientists all over the world!
  • Developed by France and known as the International System of Units (SI)
  • Units are based on the number 10
  • Help all scientists share and compare their observations and results
slide23

Common SI Prefixes:

Measuring Length--the common SI measure of length is the meter (m). One meter = 39 inches (approx.)

Common conversions include: 1 km = 1000 m, 1 m = 100 cm, 1 m = 1000 mm, and 1 cm = 10 mm

Scientists use a meter stick to measure length or distance.

observation inference

Observation & Inference

modified by Liz LaRosa www.middleschoolscience.com 2009, from original posted at:www.science-class.net/PowerPoints/Observation_Inference_8th.ppt

observations
Observations
  • Any information collected with the senses.
      • Quantitative – measureable or countable
          • 3 meters long
          • 4 marbles
          • 50 kilograms
          • 35 degrees Celsius
      • Qualitative – describable, not measureable
          • red flowers
          • smells like fresh baked cookies
          • Tastes bitter
  • The skill of describing scientific events
inference
Inference
  • Conclusions or deductions based on observations.
  • The process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence.

Practice:

  • Observations:
    • I hear people screaming
    • I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers
    • I see a lot of people
  • Inference = ?
slide28

Look at these two sets of animal tracks.

List 3 OBSERVATIONS

Make an INFERENCE

slide29

Now what do you think?

Make 3 OBSERVATIONS

Make an INFERENCE

slide30

Now what do you think?

Make 3 OBSERVATIONS

Make an INFERENCE

activity page
Activity Page

www.middleschoolscience.com/footprints-isn.pdf

In your science notebook, write your conclusion.

source of graphic http bob nap edu html evolution98 evol6 e html

Source of graphic:http://bob.nap.edu/html/evolution98/evol6-e.html

tools used by scientist
Tools Used by Scientist
  • To get the best measurements scientists need to use the proper tools
  • Stopwatches, metersticks, balances, thermometers, spring scales and graduated cylinders are some of these tools
  • Today you will learn how to properly measure volume
scientific tool for today
Scientific Tool For Today
  • Today you will learn how to accurately measure volume
  • Measured in liters (usually milliliters)
  • Measured with a Graduated Cylinder
  • Need to measure in the middle – at the meniscus

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