The scientific method chapter 1 section 2
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The Scientific Method Chapter 1 Section 2. Checks for Understanding. 0807.Inq.1 Design and conduct an open-ended scientific investigation to answer a question that includes a control and appropriate variables.

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The Scientific Method Chapter 1 Section 2

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The Scientific MethodChapter 1 Section 2

Checks for Understanding

  • 0807.Inq.1 Design and conduct an open-ended scientific investigation to answer a question that includes a control and appropriate variables.

  • 0807.Inq.2 Identify tools and techniques needed to gather, organize, analyze, and interpret data collected from a moderately complex scientific investigation.

I can identify the steps used in the scientific method.

I can establish a testable hypothesis.

I can explain how the scientific method is used to answer questions.

I can explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems.

The scientific method

A way to answer questions and solve problems

Step #1 Ask a Question ?

Scientist often ask questions after

making an


Using the scientific method requires that one be a good observer.


involves a logical conclusion drawn from available evidence and prior knowledge

uses the five

senses to gather information


  • Observations made with tools such as meter sticks, graduated cylinders, thermometers and stopwatches

  • Observations should be accurately recorded so that scientists can use the information in future investigations

Published “The Sceptical Chymist”

The Skeptical Chemist

(in 1661)

…stated that scientific speculation

was worthless unless it was supported

by experimental evidence.

Robert Boyle

This principle led to the development of the scientific method.

“My mother the eye doctor”

Observation or Inference?

The piece of paper is a note from the mother of the batter.

One player is holding a bat.

The player holding the bat is talking.

One of the teams is called the “Reds.”

One player is a catcher.

Names are written on the uniforms.

The players in the picture are on opposite teams.

The adult is the umpire.

The adult is holding a piece of paper.

The mother of the batter is an optometrist or opthalmologist (an eye doctor).

One player is wearing a catcher’s mask.

Step #2 Research the problem

  • Learn more about

    your subject

  • Scientist specialize in an area and have learned a great deal of knowledge about it

Step #3 Form aHypothesis

  • Possible explanation or answer to a question

  • Predicting what you think your experiment will show

The If-Then Format

  • Scientist usually state predictions in an “If…, then…,because…., format

  • Example:

    If you compare hand brakes and coaster brakes on the same bicycles, then the hand brakes will be more effective at stopping the bikes quickly, because they apply pressure directly to the wheel hubs.

Step # 4 Design an experimentto test yourhypothesis

  • Find out if you are correct


any factor that

could influence

the result

A Scientific Experiment


the order of events

in an experiment;

the “recipe”

Experiments must be controlled; they

must have two set-ups that must differ

by only one variable.

The conclusion must be based on the data.

A Controlled Experiment?

Step # 5 Record and analyze your data


Pieces of information acquired through experimentation

Observations are also called data.

There are two types of data.

qualitative data quantitative data

descriptions; measurements;

no numbersmust have numbers

Step # 6 State a conclusion

  • Was your



Drawing Conclusions

  • Results support hypothesis

  • Results do not support hypothesis

  • More information is needed

    Depending on your

    conclusion, you might ask

    a new question and gather

    more information or

    change the procedure

Step # 7 Communicate Results

  • Share your results accurately and honestly with others so they can reproduce and verify your data communicate.htm

The Metric System

  • Used by scientists all over the world!

  • Developed by France and known as the International System of Units (SI)

  • Units are based on the number 10

  • Help all scientists share and compare their observations and results

Common SI Prefixes:

Measuring Length--the common SI measure of length is the meter (m). One meter = 39 inches (approx.)

Common conversions include: 1 km = 1000 m, 1 m = 100 cm, 1 m = 1000 mm, and 1 cm = 10 mm

Scientists use a meter stick to measure length or distance.

Observation & Inference

modified by Liz LaRosa 2009, from original posted


  • Any information collected with the senses.

    • Quantitative – measureable or countable

      • 3 meters long

      • 4 marbles

      • 50 kilograms

      • 35 degrees Celsius

  • Qualitative – describable, not measureable

    • red flowers

    • smells like fresh baked cookies

    • Tastes bitter

  • The skill of describing scientific events

  • Inference

    • Conclusions or deductions based on observations.

    • The process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence.


    • Observations:

      • I hear people screaming

      • I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers

      • I see a lot of people

    • Inference = ?

    Look at these two sets of animal tracks.


    Make an INFERENCE

    Now what do you think?


    Make an INFERENCE

    Now what do you think?


    Make an INFERENCE

    Activity Page

    In your science notebook, write your conclusion.

    Source of graphic:

    Tools Used by Scientist

    • To get the best measurements scientists need to use the proper tools

    • Stopwatches, metersticks, balances, thermometers, spring scales and graduated cylinders are some of these tools

    • Today you will learn how to properly measure volume

    Scientific Tool For Today

    • Today you will learn how to accurately measure volume

    • Measured in liters (usually milliliters)

    • Measured with a Graduated Cylinder

    • Need to measure in the middle – at the meniscus


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