Phosphorus fate and transport in an impounded river system
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Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System. Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension Educators. Dean Baas MSU Geological Sciences Department MSU Extension Land & Water Program W. K. Kellogg Biological Station. Presentation Outline.

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Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System

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Phosphorus fate and transport in an impounded river system

Phosphorus Fate and Transport in an Impounded River System

Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension Educators

Dean Baas

MSU Geological Sciences Department

MSU Extension Land & Water Program

W. K. Kellogg Biological Station


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

  • Lake Allegan/Kalamazoo River phosphorus TMDL

    • Overview

    • Research

  • Lake Allegan phosphorus

    • Sources

      • Point

      • Nonpoint

  • Kalamazoo River watershed phosphorus sources, fate and transport

    • Agriculture

    • Urban

    • Impoundments

  • Implications for TMDL stakeholders and extension educators

  • Preliminary Conclusions

  • Questions and Discussion


Phosphorus fate and transport in an impounded river system

Lake Allegan/Kalamazoo River phosphorus TMDL watershed

  • 1600 mi2 watershed in Southwest Michigan

  • Agricultural watershed

  • Nationally recognized stakeholder drivenphosphorus TMDL

Grand Rapids

Battle Creek

Kalamazoo

Portage


Lake allegan

Lake Allegan

  • EPA 303d list as phosphorus impaired waterbody

  • 2.5 mi2 impoundment hydroelectric dam impoundment

  • Periodic nuisance algal blooms

  • Carp/Catfish


Lake allegan water quality

Lake Allegan Water Quality

  • Reductions allocated as follows:

    • Point source dischargers – 23%

    • All other sources of phosphorus (NPS) - 50%


Total maximum daily load

Total Maximum Daily Load

“The primary purpose of the TMDL program is to protect public health and the health of impaired aquatic ecosystems by ensuring attainment of water quality standards, including beneficial uses.”

US EPA, 1998


Tmdl research education and extension

TMDL Research Education and Extension

  • Michigan State University Extension Land & Water Program at KBS received:

    • In 2001, a $249,000 319 grant to develop a nonpoint source tracking system, and help develop, coordinate & track implementation activities.


Tmdl research education and extension1

TMDL Research Education and Extension

  • Michigan State University Extension Land & Water Program at KBS received:

    • In 2001, a $249,000 319 grant to develop a nonpoint source tracking system, and help develop, coordinate & track implementation activities.

    • In 2003, a $485,000 USDA-CSREES Integrated Water Program grant to:

      • Characterize the sources, fate and transport of phosphorus in the TMDL watershed.

      • Integrate research, education, and extension to enhance phosphorus reduction strategies through the stakeholder driven TMDL organization.


Research

Research

17

16

15

3

2

8

13

14

6

4

10

5

9

7

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12

1


Research sampling

Research - Sampling

  • Auto-samplers (1 parameter)

    • Daily composite TP

  • Weekly grab samples (17 parameters)

    • TP, TDP, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, alkalinity, temperature, pH, specific conductance, DO, %DO, chlorophyll A

  • Four synoptic samplings (40 parameters)

    • Weekly + Sc, Ti, V, Zn, Cr, Co, Cu, As, Se, Rb, Mo, Sn, Pb, Mn, Fe Sr, Ba, U, Al, B, Ni, Cd, Ag

  • Discharge

    • USGS gaging stations

    • Isco autosampler stage


Phosphorus sources lake allegan

Phosphorus Sources – Lake Allegan

  • 1998 MDEQ Load Estimate: 145,200 lbs/g.s.

  • 2005 Load Estimate: 98,400 lbs/g.s (32 % reduction)

  • 2006 Load Estimate: 120,800 lbs/g.s. (17% reduction)


Phosphorus sources

Phosphorus Sources


Phosphorus sources growing season nps tp exports

46 – 88 lbs/mi2

28 – 51 lbs/mi2

43 – 69 lbs/mi2

17 – 37 lbs/mi2

Phosphorus Sources Growing Season NPS TP Exports

  • Excludes urban areas

  • Mixed landuse watersheds

In General NPS Export Coefficients Increase


Phosphorus sources nps agricultural phosphorus fractions

Phosphorus SourcesNPS Agricultural Phosphorus Fractions

DP:TP = 25 %

PP:TP = 75 %

DP:TP = 70 %

PP:TP = 30 %

DP:TP = 40 %

PP:TP = 60 %


Phosphorus sources agricultural tmdl implications

Phosphorus Sources Agricultural TMDL Implications

DP:TP = 25 %

PP:TP = 75 %

DP:TP = 70 %

PP:TP = 30 %

  • Agricultural watersheds

    • Conventional approach is to reduce P by promoting soil conservation BMPs

    • High dissolved P watersheds

      • Less effective

      • Need to reduce P inputs

    • High particulate P watersheds

      • More effective

DP:TP = 40 %

PP:TP = 60 %


Phosphorus sources growing season urban nps tp exports

Phosphorus SourcesGrowing Season Urban NPS TP Exports

  • Urban areas

    • Kalamazoo/Portage

    • Battle Creek

170 - 370 lbs/mi2

230 – 430 lbs/mi2


Phosphorus sources urban nps tp exports

Phosphorus SourcesUrban NPS TP Exports

  • Kalamazoo urban event


Phosphorus sources urban tmdl implications

Phosphorus SourcesUrban TMDL Implications

  • Urban watersheds

    • Event sampling required to capture source

    • Continue storm water management efforts

170 - 370 lbs/mi2

230 – 430 lbs/mi2


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • Three Impoundments

    • Emmett Street Dam

    • Morrow Lake

    • Lake Allegan

  • Influence sources, transport and fate of phosphorus


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments1

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • Emmett Street impoundment sinking phosphorus

    • 2005: 1700 lbs

    • 2006: 2600 lbs

  • Reducing the export of phosphorus


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments2

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • Emmett Street impoundment

    • Fed by the Battle Creek River

    • High ratio of dissolved to total phosphorus

  • Impoundment sinking DP

  • Suggest DP precipitation

  • Geochemical process


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments3

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • Morrow Lake Impoundment sourcing phosphorus

    • 2005: 19,000 lbs

    • 2006: 9,500 lbs

  • Increasing the export of phosphorus


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments4

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • Morrow Lake

    • 1.7 mi2 impoundment

    • Located approximately 2/3 down the watershed

    • Mediates phosphorus transport


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments5

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • Outlet growing season mean TP concentration relatively constant

  • Varying inlet concentrations


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments6

flow

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • During the growing season, Morrow Lake inlet to outlet:

    • Particulate phosphorus increases

    • Dissolved phosphorus decreases

    • Dissolved nitrate decreases


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments7

flow

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • 2006 Chlorophyll A sampled

  • Chlorophyll A increases with particulate phosphorus

  • Algal activity

  • Biological process


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments8

The Morrow Impoundment:

Decouples the upstream portion of the watershed

Replaces phosphorus reduced in that region

Forces the downstream portion of the watershed to produce reductions to meet Lake Allegan TMDL goals

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

P reduction towards goal

No net P

reduction

P reduced

P replaced


Phosphorus sources transport and fate impoundments9

Phosphorus Sources, Transport and FateImpoundments

  • Lake Allegan impoundment sinking phosphorus

    • 2005: 15,000 lbs

    • 2006: 28,000 lbs

  • Storing phosphorus which slows the recovery


Implications for tmdl stakeholders and extension educators

Implications for TMDL Stakeholders and Extension Educators

  • Sources of total phosphorus are not sufficient for reduction strategies

    • Phosphorus fractions

    • BMP selection

    • Phosphorus source and fraction changes could have unexpected impact

  • Phosphorus processes are important

    • Biological

    • Geochemical

    • Can help, hurt, or mediate

    • Outputs may change with input changes

  • Impoundments

    • Environment for processes

    • Time for processes

    • Impact timeframe for improvement


Preliminary conclusions

Preliminary Conclusions

  • Detailed phosphorus and chemistry data is required to develop TMDL phosphorus reduction strategies

  • Phosphorus analysis should include phosphorus forms

  • BMP recommendations should be based on phosphorus forms

  • Impoundments should be evaluated to determine their impact on the transport and fate of phosphorus

  • Target reduction must consider the long term impact of phosphorus processes


Questions and discussion

Questions and Discussion


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