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The Human impact. Lonnie Thompson, Ohio State University . Melting of glaciers: During the last 27 years the Quelccaya glacier in Peru retracted. At its place a lake of melted water appeared. Kilimanjaro.

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Lonnie Thompson, Ohio State University

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Lonnie thompson ohio state university

The Human impact

Lonnie Thompson, Ohio State University

Melting of glaciers: During the last 27 years the Quelccaya glacier in Peru retracted. At its place a lake of melted water appeared

Kilimanjaro

Temperate regions: From 1990 to 2005 the Morteratsch glacier in the Bernina area (Switzerland) retracted several ten meters.


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

The pole caps

Duringthreeyears the north polar iceshieldsshrinked by about 30%.


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

http://www.ipcc.ch

http://www.grida.no/publications/


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

The worstcasescenario (steadyrise in CO2emissions

Predictedchanges in winterprecipitationup to 2100

Measuredtemperatures, precipitation and snowcover (northernhemisphere) since 1850.

Predicted changes in summer precipitation up to 2100


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Global Average Sea Level Change 1990 to 2100


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

What is global change?

Major global environmental global changes

Climate changeClimate change is manifest through the increase of atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases

Stratospheric ozone lossO3 protect us from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays. It is destroyed by chlorofluorocarbons

Air pollution

Air pollution, once thought to be of only local importance (SMOG) has now become a global problem

Ocean pollutionPollution more and more reduce the ability of the world’s oceans to sustain life and to provide food

Fresh water issuesA rising number of countries has problems to provide it’s people with fresh water

Soil degradationOver the past 50 years, about 11% of the earth’s vegetated land surface has experienced moderate top extreme soil degradation

Biodiversity loss

Although estimates are very imprecise it seems clear that we are actually undergoing a phase of mass extinction.


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

White - red - jack pine

Spruce fire

Longleaf - slash pine

Loblolly - shortical pine

Oak - pine

Oak - hickory

Oak - gum - cypress

Elm - ash - cottonwood

Maple - beech - birch

Aspen - birch

-750

-500

-250

0

250

500

750

2

Area in 1000 km

Speciesdistributionmodelling

Potential change in area occupied by 10 North American forest types. Mean values of five climatic scenarios that gave similar results(modified from Iverson and Prasad2001, Ecosystems 4: 186-199).


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

Gaines

0.6

Rel. species turnover

0.5

2

R

= 0.27

0.4

0.3

2

R

= 0.58

0.2

0.1

Losses

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

Rank geographic position [north to south]

Data from Burns et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acd. Sci. USA 100: 11474-11477


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Land use

Climate

N deposition

Biotic exchange

CO2

Major drivers on changes in biodiversity

Relative effects of major drivers on changes in biodiversity. Land use was given the value of 1.

Sala O. E. et al. 2000. Science 287: 1770-1774


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Apine

Grassland

Arctic

Boreal

1

1

1

1

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0

0

0

0

N

N

N

N

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

Climate

Climate

Climate

Climate

Land use

Land use

Land use

Land use

Exchange

Exchange

Exchange

Exchange

Lakes

Desert

Savanna

Mediteranean

1

1

1

1

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0

0

0

0

N

N

N

N

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

Climate

Climate

Climate

Climate

Land use

Land use

Land use

Land use

Exchange

Exchange

Exchange

Exchange

Streams

Northern temperate forests

Southern temperate forests

Tropical forests

1

1

1

1

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0

0

0

0

N

N

N

N

CO2

CO2

CO2

CO2

Climate

Climate

Climate

Climate

Land use

Land use

Land use

Land use

Exchange

Exchange

Exchange

Exchange

Effect of five important drivers on future biodiversity change for 12 terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems or biomes.

Sala O. E. et al. 2000. Science 287: 1770-1774


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Relativeamounts of change under theassumptionthat major driversact independent


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Relativeamounts of change under theassumptionthat major driversactsynergistic


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Global biodiversity conservation priorities

CE: crisis ecoregions; BH: biodiversity hotspots; EBA: endemic rd areas; CPD: centers of plant diversity; MC: megadiversity countries; G200: global 200 ecoregions; HBWA: high biodiversity wilderness areas; FF: frontier forests; LW: last of the wild

From Brooks T. M. et al. 2006. Science 313:58-61


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Spatialoverlap (percents) betweenninepriorityapproaches

Areas of potentialconservationvalueonlypartlyoverlap.

Depending on the criteriadifferentareasreceive high conservationvalues.

Thereis no unequivocalcriteriumwhicharea to protect.

From Brooks T. M. et al. (2006)


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Primary causes of endangerment for 98 US plant species

Agriculture

Exotics

5%

6%

Grazing

Water control

11%

8%

Natural causes

Military

1%

1%

Trampling

Logging

8%

7%

Fire control

4%

Collecting

Development

10%

21%

Off-road vehicles

6%

Roads

Oil, Gas, Mining

4%

8%


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Invasive species

„But the cardoon (Cynaracardunculus) has a far wider range.: it now occurs in these latitudes on both sides of the Cordillera across the continent. I saw it in unfrequented spots in Chile, Entre Rios, and Banda oriental. In the latter country alone, very many (probably several hundred) square miles are covered with one mass of these prickly plants, and are impenetrable by man or beast. Over the undulating plains, where these great beds occur, nothing else can live. Before their introduction, however, I apprehend the surface supported as in other parts a rank herbage. I doubt whether any case is on record of an invasion of so grand scale of one plant over the aborigines”

Charles Darwin 1839: Voyage of the Beagle.


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

What are invasive species?

  • Invasive species (neobiota) are those that

  • were accidently introduced into new habitats by man (alien species)

  • were intentionally introduced into new habitats by man for commercial purposes

  • were intentionally introduced into new habitats by man for biological control

  • greatly extended their natural home ranges towards new areas for instance due to climate change or human activities (roads, tunnels)


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Some well known examples

Gipsy moth

Colorado Potato beetle

First introduced to Europe in 1877

First record in Poland 1960

First introduced into North America in 1868

Has about 650 different host plants

During outbreaks causes major damages in softwood forests


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Tiger mosquito (Aedesalbopictus)

Nil perch

The Asian species was first reported from Houston texas in 1985

Now established in Brazil, Europe, and New Zealand

Vectors of yellow and dengue fever, as well as encephalitis

First occurrence in mainland France in 2006. Now recorded from Belgium, Italy, France, Balkan region. Since 2007 in Middle Europe (Germany)

In Germany it partly outcompetes the indigen Culex pipiens.

First deadly infection of Chikungunya feaver in Italy 2007.

Introduced into the great Est African lakes during the 1950s and 1960s to improve fishering.

Caused dramatic changes in faunal and floral composition

Caused algal blooms and eutrophication

Caused the extinction of more than 200 native fish species (2/3 of all species)


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Hulecoeteomyiajaponicus

Sciuruscarolinensis

The Asianbushmosquito was introducuded to southern Europe sinceabout 2000.

Since 2013 in Central and Eastern Germany

Occasisonalvector of West-Nil virus and Encephalitis.

The greysquirrel was introduced to greatbritain in 1989 and sincethenoutcompeted the red squirrelSciurusvulgarisdue to itsresistenceagainstanParapoxvirus.

Introducedalso to Ireland, Italy and RPA.

In 2006 a campaignagainst the greysqirrelstarted.


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Eichhornia crassipes

Marenzelleria viridis

Introduced into China from South America in the 1930s as an ornamental plant, to provide liestock food and to control air pollution

Caused reduction of lake areas and let to the extinction of about 30 fish species

Reduced lake areas caused climate changes and changes in water cycling

The flatworm was introduced via ship ballast water (first records 1979)

In the vistula lagoon it has become the dominant species constituting up to 97% of the total biomass of the bottom- living macrofauna


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

Harmonia axyridis

In the USA unsuccessfully used as aphid predator in biological control programs since 1916.

Sudden spread in USA since 1980.

Major impact on natural communities of aphid predators due to its high reproduction rate.

First observations of the Asian Lady beetle 2001: Belgium

2002: Germany, Netherlands2004: UK, France

2007: Scandinavia, Poland

2009: Whole of Poland


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

UnknownLeiobunumharvestman(Opilionida) species

First observed in the Netherlands (2007)

In 2008 massive invasion along the Rhine river up to Switzerland

Species are up to 18 cm in diameter.

They occur in large colonize of up to several hundred individuals.

They show colonial movements.


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

How many species are invasive?

Data from McNeely J. A. (1999), Kobelt and Nentwig (2008), Caley et al. 2008, and Sukopp (1990)


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

How do alien species come to Hawaii?

25% of all Hawaiian species are alien


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

A conceptual model of invading species

Humanactivities

Disturbance

Invadingspecies

Changing land use

Habitat fragmentation

Changing of ecosystemfunctioning

Changingenvironmentalconditions

Changing land management

Increasingopportunities for invaders


Lonnie thompson ohio state university

What makes a species invasive?

Marcel Rejmanek (1946-

  • Charcteristics of invasiespecies

  • r-strategists

  • have high dispersalability

  • have small genomesizes

  • are habitat orfeedinggeneralists

  • selfpollinators (plants)

  • havelongfloweringperiods (plants)

  • have a high proportion of leafarea (grasses)

  • have small seedsizes (in woodyplants)

  • occupyoftendisturbedsites

DNA contents of 148 Californian angiosperms (from Knight et al. 2005)

Whathabitatsaresusceptible to invasions?

  • Early to mid-successionalhabitats

  • Mesicenvironments and openwater

  • Disturbedhabitats

  • Fragmentedhabitats


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