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The Fertile Crescent Empires: The Hittites. As the Babylonian Empire Declined, other civilizations prospered around the Fertile Crescent Nomadic tribes from the mountains and deserts moved into the region as well Tribes battled each other for land

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The Fertile Crescent Empires: The Hittites

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The fertile crescent empires the hittites

The Fertile Crescent Empires: The Hittites

  • As the Babylonian Empire Declined, other civilizations prospered around the Fertile Crescent

  • Nomadic tribes from the mountains and deserts moved into the region as well

  • Tribes battled each other for land

  • Power and control passed from one group to the next


Indo europeans

Indo-Europeans

  • The Indo-Europeans were one of the tribes who invaded Mesopotamia

  • Each of these tribes spoke a related language

  • Indo-Europeans came from the Steppes, or grasslands north of the Black Sea. They left the area because of possible drought, social conflict, or lack of resources


Hittite military

Hittite Military

  • The Hittites were a warlike Indo-European tribe

  • They settled in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) around 2000 BCE

  • They conquered the area and created a strong empire


Why was their military successful

Why was their Military successful?

  • Horse-drawn war chariot; it was heavy and slow, but powerful

  • At that time most chariots only had two soldiers, but the Hittites held three soldiers (i.e., one man drove, a second fought, and a third held shields)

  • This allowed them to get closer in battle

  • This allowed them to expand their empire beyond Asia Minor

  • In 1595 BCE, they destroyed Babylon

  • Babylon fell to the Kassites, who ruled the area for nearly 400 years


Hittite culture

Hittite Culture

  • The Hittites, much like the Akkadians and Babylonians, blended their culture with the cultures around them (Assimilation)

  • They used Sumerian Cuneiform to write their language

  • Developed a code very similar to Hammurabi’s code


Hittite contributions

Hittite Contributions

  • First people to master iron working techniques – eventually turned into Iron tools and weapons

  • Hittite rule reached its peak around 1300 BCE, and stuck around until 1200 BCE

  • Their empire fell to powerful raiders, known as the “Sea Peoples”


The assyrians and the chaldeans

The Assyrians and the Chaldeans

  • After the Hittite Empire fell, other peoples fought for dominance in western Asia

  • Eventually the Assyrians emerged as a power


The assyrians

The Assyrians

  • Originally from northern Mesopotamia, near the city of Assur along the upper Tigris River

  • Grew barley and raised cattle

  • Adopted much of Sumerian culture

  • Assyrians’ land received fairly good rainfall and was in the midst of major trade routes – this caused many tribes to invade as an attempt to control the area

  • The Assyrians briefly gained power in the 1300s BCE and built an empire but it didn’t last

  • Then again in 900 BCE the Assyrians regained strength and built a new empire (included Mesopotamia, Asia minor, and Egypt)


Assyrian empire map

Assyrian Empire: Map


The assyrians military machine

The Assyrians: Military Machine

  • Assyria’s power relied on its military (because of their location, frequent rain, and fertile soil)

  • Constant warfare turned them into a warrior society

  • Their army included chariots, foot soldiers, and cavalry – all had iron weapons

  • SIEGE WARFARE, AND TERROR!!!!! DID I SAY SIEGE WARFARE?


Assyrian rule

Assyrian Rule

  • Kings ruled through local leaders, each of whom governed a small area of the empire

  • Local leader collected taxes, enforced laws, and raised troops for the army

  • A system of roads linked the distant parts of the empire

  • Messengers and merchants traveled these roads

  • To maintain peace, the Assyrians punished anyone who opposed them.


Assyrian achievements

Assyrian Achievements

  • Library of Nineveh, which had more than 20,000 cuneiform tablets, which were collected across the empire – one being the Epic of Gilgamesh


Assyrian decline

Assyrian decline

  • As the empire grew larger, it became harder to control

  • The Chaldeans and the Medes saw an opportunity and joined forces

  • In 612 BCE, they captured and burned their capital, Nineveh

  • The Assyrian empire came to an end


The chaldeans

The Chaldeans

  • As Assyrian was destroyed, the Chaldeans picked up the pieces

  • The Chaldeans formed their own empire

  • The Chaldeans made the old City of Babylon the capital of their new Babylonian empire

  • Nebuchadnezzar II was the most famous Chaldean king


Nebuchadnezzar ii

Nebuchadnezzar II

  • Most famous

  • Warrior and builder

  • Fought the Egyptians the Jews

  • Took Jerusalem

  • Rebuilt Babylon

  • Architecture was believed to be amazing

  • The grand palace was where the Hanging Gardens were believed to be


Chaldean culture

Chaldean Culture

  • Admired ancient Sumerian culture, studied Sumerian language, and built temples to Sumerian gods

  • The Chaldeans developed a calendar based on the phases of the moon

  • Chaldeans were short lived

  • In 539 BCE, less than a century later, the Persians conquered Babylon and the Chaldean Empire ended


The phoenicians

The Phoenicians

  • Small city-states like Sidon and Tyre emerged as trading cities

  • Although they were usually under a foreign empire, they became quite wealthy


Growth of a trading society

Growth of a Trading Society

  • Phoenicia is located on the western end of the Fertile Crescent (today’s Lebanon)

  • Geographic makeup - narrow coastal plain, rugged hills and mountains

  • Farming was difficult and resources were limited

  • Turned to the sea and became excellent sailors and dominated trade in the Mediterranean and sailing to ports in Egypt, Greece, Italy, Sicily, and Spain

  • As trade grew, they founded colonies along their trade routes

  • Carthage – was one of the most famous Phoenician colonies, which later becomes quite powerful


The phoenician alphabet

The Phoenician Alphabet

  • One of the first alphabets

  • 22 letters, all consonants

  • This made writing easier

  • Greeks borrowed and modified it


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