NUREMBERG CODE. Presented by: Jocelyn D’souza Ketki Kamble Krutika Makhare Linda Mascarenhas Vindhya Shetty. What is Nuremberg Code?.
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The Nuremberg Code is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials at the end of the Second World War.
> The Holocaust was the systematic, annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazi regime during World War 2.
> The Nazis, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews were "inferior."
> By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the "Final Solution," the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of Europe.
- High Altitude
- Freezing Temperature
- Sea Water
- Bone Grafting
- Bone,muscle,joint transplantation
- Artificial insemination
- Jewish Collection
Nuremberg Trial the guise of scientific research.
Nuremberg trial was held in 1945-1946, by IMT in which Allies prosecuted German military leaders, political officials, industrialists and financiers for crimes committed during World War II.
The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany at the PALACE OF JUSTICE.
Two trials were conducted:
(a) TRIALS OF THE MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS.
(b) TRIALS OF LESSER WAR CRIMINALS.
(i) The Doctors Trial
(ii) The Judges Trial
>The Genocide Convention, 1948.
1. Voluntary informed consent
2. Fruitful result for the good of the society
3. Prior experimentation on animals and prior knowledge of the problems
4. Avoidance of unnecessary physical or mental injury
5. Banning of known lethal or disable procedures
6. Degree of risks should exceed benifits
7. Proper preparation and proper facilities to prevent injury or death
8. Performance of experiments only by scientifically qualified persons
9. Participants may freely end the experimentation.
10. The experiments must stop if it proves too dangerous
First provision of Nuremberg Code:
# The regulations were ambiguous, vague and in many instances, impossible to fulfill.
# Disliked the very idea of a single, concrete set of standards to guide behavior in such a complex matter as human experimentation
# Conceived in reference to Nazi atrocities and not considered adequate for the conduct of medical research in other parts of the world.
# Consent clause was too extreme and not feasible with the realities of clinical research.
In view of the apparent ineffectiveness of the Nuremberg Code and the narrowness of its scope, the World Medical Association drafted the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), which was designed for professional use and distinguished between therapeutic and non-therapeutic research.