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What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?. Loren Schwiebert Wayne State University Department of Computer Science [email protected] http://www.cs.wayne.edu/~loren. Why Wireless Sensors Now?.

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What does the future hold for wireless sensor networks l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Loren Schwiebert

Wayne State University

Department of Computer Science

[email protected]

http://www.cs.wayne.edu/~loren


Why wireless sensors now l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Why Wireless Sensors Now?

  • Moore’s Law is making sufficient CPU performance available with low power requirements in a small size.

  • Research in Materials Science has resulted in novel sensing materials for many Chemical, Biological, and Physical sensing tasks.

  • Transceivers for wireless devices are becoming smaller, less expensive, and less power hungry.

  • Power source improvements in batteries, as well as passive power sources such as solar or vibration energy, are expanding application options.


Current state of the art in wireless sensors l.jpg

Current State of the Artin Wireless Sensors


Typical sensor node features l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Typical Sensor Node Features

  • A sensor node has:

    • Sensing Material

      • Physical – Magnetic, Light, Sound

      • Chemical – CO, Chemical Weapons

      • Biological – Bacteria, Viruses, Proteins

    • Integrated Circuitry (VLSI)

      • A-to-D converter from sensor to circuitry

    • Packaging for environmental safety

    • Power Supply

      • Passive – Solar, Vibration

      • Active – Battery power, RF Inductance


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What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Advances in Wireless Sensor Nodes

Consider Multiple Generations of Berkeley Motes


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What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Historical Comparison

Consider a 40 Year Old Computer


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What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

A Rosy Future for Wireless Sensors?

  • Is the effort on wireless sensor protocols a waste of time??

  • Can we just wait 10-15 years until we have sensors that are very powerful??

  • NO!! Will still face:

    • Very limited storage

    • Modest power supplies



Smart home smart office l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Smart Home / Smart Office

  • Sensors controlling appliances and electrical devices in the house.

  • Better lighting and heating in office buildings.

  • The Pentagon building has used sensors extensively.


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What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Biomedical / Medical

  • Health Monitors

    • Glucose

    • Heart rate

    • Cancer detection

  • Chronic Diseases

    • Artificial retina

    • Cochlear implants

  • Hospital Sensors

    • Monitor vital signs

    • Record anomalies


Military l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Military

Remote deployment of sensors for tactical monitoring of enemy troop movements.


Industrial commercial l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Industrial & Commercial

  • Numerous industrial and commercial applications:

    • Agricultural Crop Conditions

    • Inventory Tracking

    • In-Process Parts Tracking

    • Automated Problem Reporting

    • RFID – Theft Deterrent and Customer Tracing

    • Plant Equipment Maintenance Monitoring


Traffic management monitoring l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Traffic Management & Monitoring

  • Future cars could use wireless sensors to:

    • Handle Accidents

    • Handle Thefts

  • Sensors embedded in the roads to:

    • Monitor traffic flows

    • Provide real-time route updates



Economic factors l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Economic Factors

  • New technologies replace existing technologies or fill new niches when there are economic advantages.

    • Wireless sensors will replace wired sensors

      • No wiring – lower costs

      • More flexible deployments

    • Wireless sensors will provide new services

      • Provide cost advantages or lower overhead

      • Improve product quality or product features


Novelty l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Novelty

  • Some early adopters use new technology simply for novelty or the fun of it. Examples include:

    • Java rings and internet watches.

    • Maybe wireless sensors for dating or meeting new people?

    • Personal wireless sensors for fun – a temperature monitor you carry around?


Legal liability l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Legal / Liability

  • New technologies are adopted because of government mandates:

    • Air bags in automobiles

    • Child safety seats

  • Companies employ new technologies to avoid being sued!!

    • Temperature sensors to detect coffee that is too hot??


Entertainment l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Entertainment

  • New technology is adopted for entertainment.

    • Playing games is major use of home PCs.

    • So is Internet browsing.

    • Games on cellular phones.

    • 3D visualization for … games.

    • Games of tag using wireless sensors?

    • Interactive role-playing games with sensors?


Not technical superiority l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Not Technical Superiority

  • Useful technologies may not dominate the marketplace for several reasons.

    • Delay in getting to market.

    • Lack of standardization.

    • Limited applications.

    • Consumer preference – VHS vs. Betamax.

    • Weaker marketing or capitalization.

  • Unusual that there are no alternative technologies that can be used.



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What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Unexpected Killer Applications

  • Useful applications often follow available technology. For example,

    • PCs were available and people looked for a killer app – Visicalc.

    • The Internet was not created with these current applications in mind:

      • World Wide Web

      • E-Commerce

      • Peer-to-Peer Digital Music Sharing


Unanticipated uses arise l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Unanticipated Uses Arise

  • Once technology is available, creativity leads to new applications:

    • Sims Internet world

    • E-Bay auctions

    • Mirror for the Palm Pilot

    • Digital cameras with PC interface

  • What surprising applications for wireless sensor networks?

    • Depends on sensor technology/form factor



Noisy sensors l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Noisy Sensors

Sensor readings can be inaccurate. Protocols need to recognize this.

GPS Sensor

Accurate within

2.8 meters

Relative Humidity Sensor

Accuracy of ±5%

±8% at 90% Relative Humidity

±2% with calibration


Wireless channel conditions l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Wireless Channel Conditions

  • Limitations of wireless channels

    • Noisy

    • Interference

    • Link Contention

    • Unidirectional Links

  • But inherently a broadcast medium


Environmental factors l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks?

Environmental Factors

  • Wireless sensors need to operate in conditions that are not encountered by typical computing devices:

    • Rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc.

    • Wide temperature variations

      • May require separating sensor from electronics

    • High humidity

    • Saline or other corrosive substances

    • High wind speeds



Large scale deployments l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Large-Scale Deployments

  • Sensor networks will grow in size because of:

    • Lower cost

    • Better protocols

    • Advantages of dense networks


Heterogeneous sensors l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Heterogeneous Sensors

  • Homogeneous network of sensors has been the typical assumption, but not the future!!

    • Combining sensors with different functions

    • Hierarchy of sensors – a few expensive powerful sensors with more cheap sensors

      • Useful for special communication nodes

    • A few sensor nodes with expensive sensors, such as GPS-equipped sensors


Mobile sensors l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Mobile Sensors

Sensors with Micromachines

Low-Power Motors that Support Mobility


General purpose sensors l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

General Purpose Sensors

  • Single-purpose network is the typical assumption, but not the future!!

    • Sensors for evolving applications

    • Sensors that can adapt to changing objectives

    • More memory and CPU will allow more complex applications

    • Flexibility increases marketability


Overlapping coverage areas l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Overlapping Coverage Areas

  • Sensors will be deployed for specific applications, but

    • These deployments will overlap physically

    • Sensors will have different properties

    • Users will want to combine these different sensors for new applications:

      • Temperature sensors for HVAC control

      • Location tracking of employees

      • Combine these for fire rescue operations


Mixture of wired and wireless l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Mixture of Wired and Wireless

  • Wireless sensors will become a seamlesspart of larger networks!

    • Combiningwired sensors with wireless sensors

      • Wired sensors can have more power

      • Wired sensors can run TCP/IP

    • Accessing wireless sensors through the Internet

      • Need a gateway to translate requests

      • Uploading/downloading information remotely

      • Modifying wireless sensor tasks remotely

    • Increased direct user interaction


Some impediments to creating future applications l.jpg

Some Impediments to Future?Creating Future Applications


Need a standardized interface l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Need a Standardized Interface

  • Automated interaction between sensors implies some standard mechanism for communication!

    • Requires compatible wireless technology

    • Standardization a common theme

      • TCP/IP for the Internet

      • Java for Internet programming

      • Jini, SLP, etc. for 802.11 wireless devices

  • Need a service discovery protocol

    • Enables standard interface among sensors above the physical layer


Service discovery protocol l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Service Discovery Protocol

Anyone need

a printer?

"Dear Mom...I'm sitting..."


Service discovery protocol cont l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Service Discovery Protocol (cont.)

  • For a wireless sensor network, service discovery provides:

    • Automated calibration of new devices

    • Highly dynamic system configurations

    • Cooperation among resource poor devices

    • Resource sharing device solutions

      • Storage and long-range networking services can be obtained from a nearby server

    • Less duplication of functionality

  • Supports novel interactions in the future


Security issues l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Security Issues

  • Concerns about misuse and privacy

    • Privacy issues may slow consumer adoption of technology

      • User tracking – RFID concerns

      • Has not proved true on the Internet!

    • Authentication and privacy are not always complementary objectives

    • Do not want your medical sensor hacked!!

    • Data tampering and computer viruses could be a nightmare!


Liability and safety concerns l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Liability and Safety Concerns

  • Companies may adopt wireless sensors to reduce liability, but wireless sensors could also increase liability:

    • Use in critical applications could be limited

      • Imagine a medical sensor fails!!

      • Or an automotive theft deterrent system failure

    • Companies will be slow to adopt technology that increases their legal exposure

      • May delay adoption


Software engineering l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Software Engineering

  • Imagine a heterogeneous wireless sensor network with complex tasks and high levels of interaction…

    • End-user level products – easy to use

    • Software design??

    • Debugging??

    • Remote software updates??

  • Example: Send a request over the Internet to turn on lights when your car reaches home. The request fails.


Summary and conclusions l.jpg

What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Summary and Conclusions

  • Wireless sensor networks have abright future

    • Many applications have been proposed

    • Potential to revolutionize human-computer interactions

    • Availability of sensors will lead to new and exciting applications

  • A lot of research remains to be done

    • Wireless sensors will not evolve into traditional computers

    • Many obstacles to overcome

    • Allow realism to guide research efforts


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What does the Future hold for Wireless Sensor Networks? Future?

Acknowledgments

THANK YOU

Research collaborators (and for slides):

  • Professor Gregory Auner

  • Professor Sandeep K. S. Gupta

  • Professor Golden G. Richard III

  • Manish Kochhal

    Technical Assistance: Joel Schwiebert


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