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Biology 220 Anatomy & Physiology I Unit II TISSUES Chapter 4 pp. 114-143 http://www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/index.html http://medicine.creighton.edu/medschool/VideoAtlas/Cart.%20%26%20Bone%20Tissue%20source/webstuff/Fibrocartiage%203.html E. Gorski/ E. Lathrop-Davis/S. Kabrhel

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Unit ii tissues l.jpg

Biology 220

Anatomy & Physiology I


Chapter 4

pp. 114-143



E. Gorski/ E. Lathrop-Davis/S. Kabrhel

Definitions and types l.jpg
Definitions and Types

  • Group of cells with similar origin and function

  • 4 types

    • Epithelial tissues: cover surfaces, line cavities, form secretory parts of glands

    • Connective tissues: connect other tissues; support, protect; transport (blood); insulate (fat)

    • Muscle tissues: movement

    • Nervous tissue: coordinates activities by recognizing and responding to stimuli (changes in environment); transfer information

Epithelial tissues l.jpg


Single (simple) or

multi-layered (stratified)

Associated with underlying connective tissue


Epithelial Tissues

  • Features:

  • Closely packed cells with little extracellular matrix

  • Not innervated (receptors found in connective tissue underlying them)

  • Highly able to regenerate (mitotic cell division)

  • Avascular (no blood vessels; blood supplied by underlying connective tissue)

  • Polarized

  • Cells joined by cell junctions

Epithelial tissues polarity l.jpg

Apical surface

(free edge)

Basal surface

  • Basement Membrane (filtration and repair)

  • Basal lamina - associated with epithelium

  • Reticular lamina - associated with underlying connective tissue

Epithelial Tissues: Polarity



Cell junctions l.jpg
Cell Junctions

  • Desmosomes

  • aka. anchoring junctions

  • loose connections

  • help maintain integrity of epithelial tissue

  • allow materials to pass between cells

  • Tight junctions

  • tight seals between cells prevent movement of substances between cells

Fig. 3.4, p. 71

Gap Junctions - allow transfer of chemicals including ions from one cell to another adjacent cell; important to communications between some neurons

Classification of epithelial tissues l.jpg
Classification of Epithelial Tissues

Based on: *number of layers

*shape of cells

Fig. 4.1, p. 116

Types of epithelial tissues l.jpg
Types of Epithelial Tissues

  • Simple Tissues

    • Simple Squamous*

    • Simple Cuboidal*

    • Simple Columnar*

    • Pseudostratified Columnar*

  • Stratified Tissues

    • Stratified Squamous*

    • Stratified Columnar

    • Stratified Cuboidal

    • Transitional*

Simple epithelial tissues l.jpg
Simple Epithelial Tissues

Simple squamous epithelium

  • Filtration, exchange of materials, secretion

  • Locations:

    • kidneys (glomerulus; filtration of solutes from blood)

    • lungs (alveoli; exchange of gases between blood and air)

    • endothelium (lining of blood and lymphatic vessels, heart)

    • mesothelium (serous membranes of ventral body cavity)


Simple epithelial tissues9 l.jpg

Simple Epithelial Tissues

  • Simple cuboidal epithelium

  • Secretion and absorption

  • kidneys (controllable change of materials between blood and urine)

  • glands (secrete chemicals into ducts or blood)


  • Modifications:

  • Cilia (movement of materials; e.g., uterine tubes)

  • Microvilli (increase surface area for absorption; small intestine)

  • Gobletcells (secrete mucous; lubrication)


Simple epithelial tissues10 l.jpg
Simple Epithelial Tissues

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

  • secretion

  • all cells rest on basement membrane, but nuclei at different levels give the appearance of being multilayered

  • cilia (respiratory system -- moves mucus upward)

  • goblet cells (respiratory system -- secrete mucus that traps airborne particles)

Stratified epithelial tissues l.jpg
Stratified Epithelial Tissues

Defined by the shape of the outer cells

Stratified squamous epithelium

  • protection against abrasion

  • Keratinized (epidermis of skin)

    • contains keratin (water-proof protein) that protects against water loss

  • Non-keratinized (mouth, esophagus, vagina, anus)

    • lacks keratin; water may be lost across these surfaces


Stratified epithelial tissues12 l.jpg

Stratified columnar epithelium

(ducts of male reproductive system, interlobular ducts of liver; functions: protection and secretion)


Stratified cuboidal epithelium

(ducts of sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands;

function: protection)



Stratified Epithelial Tissues

Transitional epithelium l.jpg

Distended, the uppermost cells are stretched into a squamous shape

Relaxed, the outermost cells become bulbous

Transitional Epithelium


Connective tissues ct l.jpg
Connective Tissues (CT) shape


  • generally, well-innervated and highly vascular (except cartilage)

  • consist of relatively few cells embedded in large amount of extracellular (outside the cell) matrix

  • each type of CT has its own associated cell type(s) and matrix

Connective tissues ct15 l.jpg
Connective Tissues (CT) shape


  • is based on structure (type of matrix [ground substance, type and amount of fibers] and cells) and function

  • cells: each CT group has its own associated cell type(s)

    • “-blast” = mitotically active (produce new cells; e.g., fibroblasts, osteoblasts)

    • “-cyte” = mature cell (e.g., adipocytes, osteocytes)

  • all connective tissues arise from an embryonic form called mesenchyme

Connective tissues matrix l.jpg
Connective Tissues: Matrix shape

Matrix consists of ground substance and fibers:

  • Ground substance = thick (generally), amorphous (undefined structure), non-staining interstitial “fluid” (generally); consistency varies from rock-hard (bone) to watery fluid (plasma)

  • Fibers -- proteins of differing structure (and function)

    • collagenous -- most abundant; strong; resists pulling tension; composed of thick strands of collagen

    • reticular -- fine strands of collagen forming continuous network around blood vessels, soft organs, basement membrane

    • elastic -- consists of elastin; stretch and recoil without breakage; found in skin, lungs, blood vessels

Connective tissues l.jpg
Connective Tissues shape

Types of connective tissues:

  • Connective tissue proper

    A. Loose connective tissue

    -areolar, adipose, reticular

    B. Dense connective tissue

    - dense regular, dense irregular

  • Cartilage

    A. Hyaline cartilage

    B. Elastic cartilage

    C. Fibrocartilage

  • Bone

  • Blood

Connective tissue proper l.jpg


Connective Tissue Proper

  • Two subclasses :A. Loose connective tissues

  • B. Dense connective tissues

  • Defined by:

  • fiber content varies with type of tissue

  • ground substance = hyaluronic acid (hyaluronidase - enzyme)

  • classification depends on type, amount, orientation of fibers

  • A. Loose CTs

  • Areolar CT

  • all three types of fibers

  • fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells

  • water and solute reservoir

  • associated with most epithelial membranes

    • forms lamina propria of mucous membranes

    • forms papillary layer of dermis

Connective tissue proper a loose cts con t l.jpg

  • Adiposehttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

  • specialized for fat storage

  • cells = adipocytes

  • insulates, absorbs shock, stores energy

  • liposuction


  • Reticular CT

  • lots of reticular fibers

  • forms delicate, supporting networks (stroma) of some organs (e.g., spleen, liver, lymphatic tissue)


Connective Tissue ProperA. Loose CTs (con’t)

Connective tissue proper b dense cts l.jpg

  • Dense Regular (fibrous) CThttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

  • collagen fibers roughly parallel

  • resists tension primarily in one direction

  • poorly vascularized

  • forms tendons (muscle-bone); ligaments (bone-bone), aponeuroses (wide tendons)


  • Elastic CT

  • form of dense regular CT with lots of elastic fibers

  • recoils after stretching

  • around large arteries and large lymphatic vessels


Connective Tissue ProperB. Dense CTs

Provide strength and elasticity

Connective tissue proper b dense cts con t l.jpg


Connective Tissue ProperB. Dense CTs (con’t)

  • Dense Irregular CT

  • fibers irregularly arranged

  • resists tension in many directions

  • lower dermis, perichondrium, periosteum, and fibrous capsules around some organs (kidneys, testes, heart [fibrous pericardium]

Cartilage l.jpg

  • Features:

  • avascular

  • perichondrium = dense irregular CT surrounding cartilage; supplies blood (brings nutrients/oxygen, removes wastes)

  • lack innervation

  • cells = chondroblasts (during cartilage formation) and chondrocytes (mature) found in openings called lacunae (lacuna)

  • Types

    • A. Hyaline Cartilage

    • B. Elastic Cartilage

    • C. Fibrocartilage

Cartilage a hyaline l.jpg


Cartilage: A. Hyaline

  • most abundant

  • collagen fibers make it strong, yet pliable (fibers not visible)

  • tip of nose, trachea, epiphyseal plate (growing bone), much of the fetal skeleton, articular cartilage

Cartilage b elastic cartilage and c fibrocartilage l.jpg

  • B. Elastic cartilagehttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

  • elastic fibers allow recoil after bending

  • pinna (external ear), epiglottis


  • C. Fibrocartilage

  • compressible without permanent change

  • intervertebral disks, menisci (knee), symphysis pubis


Cartilage: B. Elastic Cartilage and C. Fibrocartilage

Cartilage comparison l.jpg
Cartilage Comparisonhttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

  • Two types of cartilage are seen here – what are they?


Blood l.jpg



  • Features:

  • cells & cell fragments (suspended in liquid matrix = plasma)

    • leukocytes = white blood cells [WBCs]

    • erythrocytes = red blood cells [RBCs] and

    • platelets (cell fragments)

  • contains solutes (ions, nutrients, wastes) and suspended substances (e.g., large proteins)

  • fights disease (WBCs)

  • transports substances (e.g., nutrients, wastes, hormones, respiratory gasses)

Slide27 l.jpg

  • forms the skeletal system (along with cartilage);

  • Functions:

    • provides support,

    • leverage for movement (muscle attachment),

    • protection,

    • hemopoiesis ( hematopoiesis) = blood cell formation

  • Features:

    • cells in hard matrix (calcium and magnesium carbonate and phosphate salts); collagen fibers and other proteins

  • Types:

    • spongy bone (plates of bone called trabeculae)

    • compact bone

      • based on osteon (formerly Haversian system)

Compact bone l.jpg

Osteocyte in http://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpglacuna

Lamellae - layers of matrix

Perforating canal

Canaliculi allows cells to communicate and pass nutrients/ wastes


Central (Haversian) Canal

(passageway for blood vessels and nerves)

Compact Bone


Muscle tissue l.jpg
Muscle Tissuehttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg


  • high rate of metabolic activity when active

  • highly vascular (needs good supply of oxygen and nutrients when active)

  • structure specialized for contraction to produce movement of body parts (including movement of materials through tubes)

  • cells = muscle fibers


    A. Skeletal

    B. Cardiac

    C. Smooth

Muscle tissue a skeletal muscle l.jpg

Longitudinal Sectionhttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg


Transverse (cross) Section

Muscle Tissue: A. Skeletal Muscle

  • attached to bones

  • movement of skeleton; voluntary control of sphincters

  • striated (banding pattern), voluntary, multinucleate (develops from union of cells)

Skeletal muscle tendon comparison l.jpg
Skeletal Muscle/Tendon Comparisonhttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

  • Compare the skeletal muscle (m) with the tendon (t) – tendon is composed of dense regular CT


Muscle tissue b cardiac muscle l.jpg

  • Cardiac Musclehttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

  • striated, involuntary, uninucleate, branching

  • intercalated disks allow rapid spread of impulses from one fiber to another

  • myocardium (muscular wall of heart)


Muscle Tissue: B. CardiacMuscle

Muscle tissue c smooth muscle l.jpg




Muscle Tissue: C. SmoothMuscle

  • no visible striations, involuntary, uninucleate

  • walls of hollow organs, including blood vessels

Nervous tissue l.jpg
Nervous Tissuehttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg


  • specialized for recognizing environmental changes (stimuli; receptors; sensory function)

  • integrates sensory inputs and motor outputs

  • controls motor outputs (muscle contraction, glandular secretion

Nervous tissue35 l.jpg

  • Neuronshttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

  • conduct information (sensation, motor impulses)

  • Neuroglia

  • protect, insulate, support neurons


Nervous Tissue

Epithelial membranes l.jpg
Epithelial Membraneshttp://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg


  • Consist of epithelial tissue and CT

    Three types:

    A. Serous Membranes

    B. Cutaneous Membrane

    C. Mucous Membranes

Epithelial membranes a serous membranes l.jpg
Epithelial Membranes:http://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpgA.Serous Membranes

  • Consist of simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) & areolar CT

  • Secrete serous fluid (lubricates to prevent friction and allow freer movement)

  • Line ventral body cavity (except pelvic cavity)

    • parietal layer - lines wall of cavity

    • visceral layer - overlies organs

A serous membranes con t l.jpg
A. Serous Membranes (con’t)http://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpg

Three ventral body cavities with a serosa

  • pericardium surrounds and covers heart

  • pleura overlies lungs and line thoracic cavity

  • peritoneum lines abdominal cavity and covers organs

    Inflammation of serosa due to irritation and/or disease

  • in pleural cavity (pleurisy)

  • in abdominal cavity (peritonitis)

  • in pericardium (pericarditis)

Epithelial membranes b cutaneous membrane l.jpg
Epithelial Membranes: http://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpgB.Cutaneous Membrane

  • forms skin

  • consists of:

    • keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis)

    • connective tissue (dermis)

      • areolar CT [papillary layer], and

      • dense irregular CT [reticular layer])

Epithelial membranes c mucous membranes l.jpg
Epithelial Membranes: http://www.lima.ohio-state.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Areolar%20400X.jpgC.Mucous Membranes

  • line body cavities open to the outside (digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tract, urinary tract)

  • mostly non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (or stratified columnar) or simple columnar (absorptive areas of gut)

  • “wet” membranes (bathed in secretions-mucus, urine)