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The University of Akron Summit College Business Technology Department Computer Information Systems. 2440: 145 Operating Systems Instructor: Enoch E. Damson. Computer.

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The university of akron summit college business technology department computer information systems l.jpg

The University of AkronSummit CollegeBusiness Technology DepartmentComputer Information Systems

2440: 145

Operating Systems

Instructor: Enoch E. Damson


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Computer

  • A machine that performs four basic operations known as the information processing cycle (input, processing, output, and storage)

    • Input – computer gathers data from users

    • Process – data is converted into information

    • Storage – data or information is stored for future use

    • Output – data or information is retrieved from the computer

Introduction to Computers


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Types of Computers

  • The four basic types of computers are:

    • Supercomputers

    • Mainframes

    • Minicomputers

    • Microcomputers

Introduction to Computers


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Types of Computers…

  • Supercomputers – fastest, most expensive, large and powerful computers for specialized tasks such as mathematical calculations, weather tracking, satellite monitoring, etc

  • Mainframes – large computers designed to handle huge processing jobs in large corporations and government agencies

    • Mainframe computers multitask – perform different types of tasks at the same time

  • Minicomputers – handle the computer needs of smaller corporations

  • Microcomputers – designed to meet individual needs

    • Some of the most common types of microcomputers are: desktops, laptop/notebook, personal digital assistants (PDAs)

Introduction to Computers


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Types of Microcomputers

Introduction to Computers


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Computer Information System (IS)

  • A collection of components that work together to process data into information

  • Components include:

    • Hardware

    • Software

    • Procedures

    • Data

    • People

    • Network

Introduction to Computers


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Computer Information System…

Introduction to Computers


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Hardware

  • The physical components of the computer controlled by the software

  • The way these components are put together and arranged is called system hardware configuration

  • Types of hardware devices (peripherals) include:

    • Input Devices

    • Systems Unit

      • Processor Unit

      • Internal memory

    • Storage Devices

    • Output Devices

Introduction to Computers


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Types of Hardware Devices

Introduction to Computers


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Input Devices

  • Used to enter data into the computer for processing

  • Examples include:

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

    • Scanner

    • Digital camera

    • Video camera

Introduction to Computers


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Keyboard

  • The primary input device for computers

  • Uses the following types of keys to send data to the computer

    • Alphanumeric keys

    • Control keys

    • Function keys

    • Cursor control keys

    • Toggle and other keys

    • Multimedia and Internet control keys

Introduction to Computers


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Keyboard Keys

  • Alphanumeric keys – sends alphabets and numeric values to the computer

    • Numeric keypad – provides alternate method of quickly entering numbers

  • Control keys – the Ctrl, Alt, and Windows keys that are used in combination with other keys to provide shortcuts or increased keyboard functionality

  • Function keys – numbered F1 through F12 and generally associated with certain software-specific commands

Introduction to Computers


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Keyboard Keys…

  • Cursor control keys – arrow keys that allow users to move the insertion point

  • Toggle and other keys – the Insert, Num Lock, Caps Lock and other keys used for various purposes like navigation and editing

  • Multimedia and Internet control keys – available on most modern keyboards for functions such as muting or volume control, opening a Web browser, sending an email, etc

Introduction to Computers


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Keyboard Keys

Introduction to Computers


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System Unit

  • Holds the processing hardware, electrical power supply, disk drives, circuit cards, ports for connecting other hardware and the motherboard (system board)

    • Motherboard – ties everything in the system unit together

    • The motherboard holds two very important parts of the computer:

      • Processor (central processing unit (CPU) or microprocessor)

      • Memory (RAM)

Introduction to Computers


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Motherboard

Introduction to Computers


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The Processor

  • The brain of the computer that controls all the commands and tasks of the computer

  • Has three basic main parts:

    • Control Unit – obtains instructions from the computer’s memory and interprets these instructions and executes them

    • Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) – performs all the arithmetic (math operations) and logical (comparisons) operations for the computer

    • Registers – a small set of temporary storage cells used to store data and instructions needed frequently

  • Measured by the speed at which they are capable of processing data – also known as clock speed

    • Processing speed is measured in megahertz (MHz) – in millions – and gigahertz (GHz) – in billions

  • Examples include:

    • Pentium, Celeron, Centrino (by Intel Corporation)

    • Athlon, Sempron, Turion (by Advanced Micro Devices)

Introduction to Computers


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Memory

  • Holds:

    • Data – raw facts for processing

    • Instructions – rules for processing data

    • Information – processed data

  • Two basic types of memory include:

    • Random Access Memory (RAM) – the volatile part of memory that stores information temporarily

    • Read-Only Memory (ROM) – the nonvolatile part of memory on which instructions have been prerecorded to help start the computer and perform other tasks

  • Memory is measured by its size in bytes, kilobytes (thousands), megabytes (millions), and gigabytes (billions)

    • Bit (Binary Digit) – the smallest unit of information in computers that is made up of 0s and 1s

    • Byte – represents a single character and consists of 8 bits

    • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) – one of the coding schemes used to represent characters in 8-bit bytes

      • Can represent a maximum of 256 characters (incl. uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and special symbols)

    • Word – a group of bytes

      • System-dependent

      • Vary from 16 bits (2 bytes), 32 bits ( 4 bytes) or even 64 bits (8 bytes)

Introduction to Computers


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Storage Devices

  • Used to store data and information permanently

  • Data is generally stored using one of the following forms:

    • Magnetic storage – uses sectors that divide tracks to store data

      • E.g. hard disks, tapes, floppy disks, zip disks

    • Optical storage – also uses tracks and sectors but data is saved using a laser beam

      • E.g. Compact discs (CDs), digital video discs (DVDs)

    • Flash memory – uses solid-state technology which is completely electronic and has no moving mechanical parts

      • E.g. Flash drives (memory sticks), cards used in digital cameras, MP3 players, etc

  • Storage devices are measured in bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes

Introduction to Computers


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Examples of Storage Devices

Introduction to Computers


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Output Devices

  • The devices used to display and print data and information

  • E.g. monitor, printer, speakers, etc

    • Monitors output soft copy and their resolution identifies the number pixels (picture elements) per square inch that appear on a screen

      • Most monitors today can display at least 256 colors

      • The two main categories of monitors are:

        • Cathode ray tubes (CRT) – can be curved or flat and relatively inexpensive

        • Flat-panel/LCD monitors – use liquid crystal display (LCD) technology and are much slimmer and expensive

    • Printers output hard copy and their resolution is measured in dots per inch (dpi)

      • The two main categories of printers are:

        • Impact printers – like dot matrix printers that use small keys to strike an ink ribbon against a paper

        • Non-impact printers – like ink-jet printers and laser printers that do not touch the paper when printing

Introduction to Computers


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Examples of Output Devices

  • Monitors

  • Printers

Introduction to Computers


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Software

  • Software (program) - a set of instructions that direct the computer to accomplish certain tasks

  • The two major categories of software are:

    • System software

    • Application software

Introduction to Computers


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System Software

  • Provides the instructions needed for the computer to run

  • The ”background software” that manages the fundamental operations of a computer system including:

    • Starting up (booting) the computer

    • Executing programs

  • There are 4 types of system software:

    • Operating systems – E.g. Windows, Mac OS, Linux

    • Utilities programs – Norton Antivirus

    • Device drivers – printer software

    • Programming languages – Java, C++

Introduction to Computers


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Operating System

  • Controls basic input and output, allocates system resources, manages storage space, maintains security, and detects equipment failure

  • Examples include:

    • DOS

    • Windows

    • UNIX

    • Mac OS, etc

Introduction to Computers


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Application Software

  • ”End-user” software that performs useful tasks such as word processing, desktop publishing, etc

  • Kinds of application software include:

    • Word processing software – e.g. Microsoft Word

    • Spreadsheet software – e.g. Microsoft Excel

    • Database software – e.g. Microsoft Access

    • Presentation software – e.g. Microsoft PowerPoint

    • Communication & Organization software – e.g. Microsoft Outlook

Introduction to Computers


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Procedures

  • Rules or guidelines for people to follow when using software, hardware, and data

  • E.g. Software Manuals

Introduction to Computers


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People

  • Making people more productive is what computers are all about

  • Examples include:

    • Analysts

    • Designers

    • Developers

    • Users

Introduction to Computers


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Data

  • Raw facts entered into the computer system for processing

  • Processed to produce information

Introduction to Computers


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Networks

  • Two or more computers connected in some way to share hardware, software programs, data and other resources

    • Node – each object (computer, printer, etc) connected to a network

  • The two main types of networks are:

    • Local area network (LAN) – uses direct cables, radio, or other signals to link computers within a small geographic area like a building or group of buildings

    • Wide area network (WAN) – uses long-distance transmission media to link computers separated by a few miles or even thousands of miles

Introduction to Computers


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Network Configurations

  • The two main categories of network configurations are:

    • Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks – most commonly found in homes and small-businesses with each node capable of communicating with every other node

    • Client/server networks - consist of a server (host computer) and clients (workstations)

Introduction to Computers


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Networks Topology (Topography)

  • The different types of network architecture – how computers and other devices are arranged and connected

  • The most common topographic layouts include:

    • Bus network – no server but each node connects to a central high-speed line (bus)

    • Ring network – all nodes connect to a circular line around which data travels in only one direction

    • Star network – each node connects to a centrally located switch to communicate with other nodes

      • The most frequently used networking style for businesses

      • Has a server to which all clients and other devices are connected

    • Wireless network – devices connect to other computers and network resources using radio signals, microwaves, satellite signals, and other wireless media

Introduction to Computers


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Network Topologies

Introduction to Computers


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Network Cables

  • Computers can be connected to a network using devices like:

    • Coaxial cables – typically used by most cable TV systems

      • The ends are usually made with RF (radio frequency) connectors

    • Twister pair cables (shielded and unshielded) – two conductors are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources

      • The ends are usually made with RJ (registered jack) 45 to plug into computer network interfaces

      • Two main types include:

        • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables –

        • Unshielded Twisted pair (UTP) /Ethernet cables – primarily used for telephones and commonly for computer networking

    • Fiber-optic cables – a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length

      • Used by most high-speed Internet cable connections

    • Wireless – transfers information without using wires

Introduction to Computers

Introduction to Computers

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Coaxial Cable

Introduction to Computers

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Twisted Pair Cable

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Introduction to Computers

Introduction to Computers

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Fiber-Optic Cable

Introduction to Computers

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37


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Ports

  • Where all the peripheral devices connect to the computer to enable data exchange

  • Because input and output devices can exchange data with the computer using different methods, they might require different ports

Introduction to Computers


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Types of Ports

  • Serial and parallel ports are two of the oldest types of ports found on a computer

    • Serial ports – can only send data one bit at a time

      • Transfer data 115 Kilobits per second (Kbps) at most

      • Devices that use serial ports include the mouse, modem

    • Parallel ports – send data in groups of bits, at transfer rates of up to 500 Kbps

      • Printers often use parallel ports

Introduction to Computers


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Faster Types of Ports

  • Universal serial bus (USB) ports – able to interface with several different peripheral devices

    • USB 2.0 can attain a rate of 480 Mbps or 480,000 Kbps

  • FireWire ports - usually used to connect digital cameras or digital video recorders to a computer

  • Connectivity ports – used to connect to a local network or to the Internet

    • Examples include:

      • Modem ports – resemble phone jacks and are used to connect the modem to a phone system and enable dial-up Internet access

      • Ethernet port - a bit larger than the standard phone jack and used for network access and can also be used to connect a cable modem or router

Introduction to Computers


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Types of Ports

Introduction to Computers


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