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The New Russia Independent Republics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The New Russia & Independent Republics. Chapter 9. From Communism to Free Enterprise. Chapter 9 Section 1. Becoming a Free Market Economy. After the collapse of Communism, Russia moved toward a free market economy

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Becoming a Free Market Economy

  • After the collapse of Communism, Russia moved toward a free market economy

    Free Market Economy: People, rather than government, decide what goods and services to produce, how to produce, & who will buy them

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I. Russia’s Economic Regions

  • Moscow

    • Political & cultural center

    • Shift from heavy to light industry (ex. Clothing, electronics)

  • Port Cities: Kaliningrad & St. Petersburg

    • Kaliningrad-only port that stays ice-free year-round

    • Other port cities: Murmansk, Vladivostok

  • Siberia

    • Largest mineral supply in Russia

    • Hard to tap into resources because of harsh climate

  • Volga River/Urals

    • Volga carries almost ½ of Russia’s river traffic

    • Russia’s most productive farmland

    • Ural Mountains rich in minerals

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II. Environmental Issues

  • Although Russians are moving toward a free market economy, they must balance making profit with protecting the environment

    • Nuclear Power Plants are in decay; leads to nuclear waste

    • Air Pollution from factories led to lower life expectancy

    • Water Pollution from poor sewer system, chemical weapons plants (from Cold War) & other sources

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Russia’s People & Culture

Chapter 9

Section 2

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I. Politics

  • Russia is a democracy

    • Democracy: people elect their leaders

  • Russia is a federal republic

    • Federal Republic: power divided between national & state government with president

  • Democracy is dramatically different from Communism:

    • Leaders must follow same laws as regular people

    • Leaders must accept criticism from people

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II. Ethnic Challenges

  • Majority Group: Russians, descendants of Slavs, are largest group

  • Minority Group: 100 ethnic groups

    *Majority group controls more wealth & power.

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Chechnya, has experienced fighting over the years because the Chechen people want to form their own country.

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III. Daily Life the Chechen people want to form their own country.

  • Urban (city areas) are large & modern

  • Development of suburbs as people move outside city limits

  • 70% of population is Russian Orthodox

    • Other religions: Muslims, Roman Catholic, etc.

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IV. Russian Literature & Music the Chechen people want to form their own country.

  • Stories passed down orally: skazki

  • War & Peace by Leo Tolstoy describes Russia’s defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte & France

  • Peter Tchaikovsky composed The Nutcracker ballet & 1812 Overture which also describes Russia’s defeat of France

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The Republics Emerge art work from around the world.

Chapter 9

Section 3

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I. Geography art work from around the world.

  • Located south of Russia

  • Republics of Central Asia

    • East of Caspian Sea

    • Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan

  • Republics of the Caucasus

    • Located between Caspian Sea and Black Sea

    • Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia

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Republics of the Caucasus art work from around the world.

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II. Republics of the Caucasus art work from around the world.

  • Armenia

    • First country to make Christianity official religion (ca. 300 AD)

    • Capital, Yerevan, is one of world’s oldest (founded in 782 BC)

    • Armenia was controlled by many different nations, including the Ottoman Empire, who limited their freedoms & mistreated their people. During WWI, millions were deported by the OE, where historians estimate 600,000-1 million died of starvation. *This was the first genocide of the 20th century, though the Turks deny that it ever happened.

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  • Azerbaijan art work from around the world.

    • Split in half by Armenia

    • Majority are Muslims, which has caused conflicts with Armenian Christians

    • Authoritarian government is corrupt

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  • Georgia art work from around the world.

    • Known for resorts located along the Black Sea

    • Has had conflicts with Russia after gaining independence because Russia has recognized claims of independence (as of 2008) of two regions below

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Resorts in Georgia along coast of Black Sea art work from around the world.

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Central Asian Republics art work from around the world.

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III. Central Asian Republics art work from around the world.

  • Central Asian Republics have become of interest to the rest of the world because of their vast natural resources

  • Known for limiting citizens’ basic freedoms & violations of human rights are common

  • All five countries are Muslim

  • Kazakhstan

    • Largest of the former Soviet republics

    • Large amounts of natural resources & most stable of all republics

  • Uzbekistan

    • Most live in fertile valleys & oases

    • World’s largest cotton producer (child labor used to harvest in many places)

  • Turkmenistan

    • World’s largest reserves of natural gas

  • Kyrgyzstan

  • Tajikistan