What are the Middle Ages?. The Middle Ages are the period in Europe between 500 and 1500 AD, after the decline of the Roman Empire. During this period Europe remained fragmented.. What trends emerged as a result of repeated Germanic invasions? . Because of the Germanic invasions trade was disruptedmoney became scarcecities were abandoned and declinedthe population shifted as people moved out of cities to the country (most of Europe was rural)..
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1. The Middle Ages (Medieval Europe) SOL WHI.9
Ancient World History:
Patterns of Interaction
2. What are the Middle Ages? The Middle Ages are the period in Europe between 500 and 1500 AD, after the decline of the Roman Empire.
During this period Europe remained fragmented.
3. What trends emerged as a result of repeated Germanic invasions? Because of the Germanic invasions
trade was disrupted
money became scarce
cities were abandoned and declined
the population shifted as people moved out of cities to the country (most of Europe was rural).
4. How were the Germanic tribes different from the united Roman Empire (think languages, learning, concept of government)? Germanic tribes couldn’t read or write.
They didn’t preserve Greek or Latin learning.
Mainly only church officials could read.
They had no common language (Romans had Latin)
Each tribe or region spoke a different language.
Family ties and personal loyalty were more important than citizenship.
5. Who is Clovis and what did he do? Who are the Franks? Clovis is the leader of the Franks who united a Frankish kingdom.
He converted to Christianity and helped spread it in Europe by forming an alliance with the Roman Catholic Church.
The Franks are the Germanic tribe from Gaul which unified the region under one leader and helped spread Christianity through Europe.
6. How was Christianity spread to the Germanic peoples? Christianity was spread by Frankish rulers who encouraged conversion for those they ruled.
People in southern Europe who feared Muslim attacks converted in order to gain the protection of the Catholic Church.
Christianity also spread because of missionaries, or religious travelers, who spread went among the Germanic and Celtic tribes and spread their beliefs.
7. What is a monastery and what is a convent? What were they like and why were they important? A monastery and a convent are religious communities for men and women.
These religious people gave up their material possessions and led a holy life (praying, helping others, etc.).
They are important because they became Europe’s best-educated communities
they opened schools
copied books (illuminated manuscripts=highly decorated copies of texts)
8. How did Gregory I expand papal power? Gregory I (aka Gregory the Great) expanded papal power by making the church a SECULAR as well as religious power.
The Church became the center of Roman government
The Pope acted as Mayor
Gregory negotiated treaties, raised armies, helped the poor, and repaired roads.
He believed that Christendom (or the Christian peoples) encompassed the area from Rome to the farthest Churches and that he, as Pope, was in charge of all of it.
9. What is the Merovingian Dynasty? The Merovingian Dynasty was the ruling family of Clovis and his descendents who united many peoples under Frankish rule.
10. Who is Charles Martel and what did he accomplish? Charles Martel (The Hammer) was the ‘mayor of the palace’ who became more powerful than the Frankish king.
He took power and extended the Frankish empire and defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours (stopping the spread of Islam).
He passed down power to his son Pepin the Short who was anointed “King by the grace of God” by the pope and started the Carolingian dynasty.
11. What is the Carolingian Dynasty? Who is Charles Martel’s son and grandson who expanded Frankish rule? The Carolingian dynasty is the Frankish family who united and strengthened the Franks.
It started with Charles Martel, his son Pepin, and his grandson Charlemagne (Charles the Great).
12. What did Charlemagne do to expand his empire? Charlemagne expanded his empire by conquering surrounding lands.
He spread Christianity and reunited Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire.
Charlemagne’s empire included two thirds of Italy, France, part of Spain, and German Saxony.
13. When was Charlemagne crowned the Holy Roman Emperor and by whom? Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD by Pope Leo III.
This strengthened the papacy and the church by giving them the political power to name secular rulers.
14. How did Charlemagne govern his territory? Charlemagne limited the power of the nobles so that they couldn’t threaten his rule.
He also sent out royal agents to make sure nobles were governing their land justly.
He kept a close watch on the management of his huge estates.
15. How did Charlemagne revive culture? Charlemagne revived Greco-Roman culture by encouraging learning.
He surrounded himself with English, German, Italian, and Spanish scholars.
He opened a palace school and ordered monasteries to open schools to train priests and monks.
16. What happened to Charlemagne’s empire after his death (mention Treaty of Verdun)? After Charlemagne’s death civil war broke out among his three sons.
The Treaty of Verdun was signed in 843 and divided the empire.
This weakened the power of the Carolingian kings.
A line of weak rulers led to the breakdown of the empire which resulted in a new system of governing and landholding called feudalism.
17. What is feudalism and why did it take root in Medieval Europe? Feudalism is a military and political system based on land ownership and personal loyalty.
Mutual obligations existed between those who owned land and those that worked or fought for them.
Feudalism took root in medieval Europe because of the political turmoil and constant warfare.
When central power broke down people needed protection from local landowners.
18. Who are the Vikings? Where did they raid and then eventually start to settle? The Vikings are the invaders from Scandinavia who invaded the continent from Western Europe all the way to Russia where they began to settle.
They’re also known as Northmen or Norsemen.
19. Who are the Magyars? Where were they from and where did they raid? The Magyars are nomadic invaders from central Asia who invaded Western Europe and who eventually settled in Hungary.
20. How did the invasions of the Angles and Saxons (from continental Europe to England), the Magyars (from central Asia to Hungary), and the Vikings (from Scandinavia to Russia) influence the development of Europe? The invasions of the Angles and Saxons, the Magyars, and the Vikings caused widespread disorder and suffering in Europe.
People no longer looked to the powerless central authorities but turned instead to their local leaders who had their own armies.
Local leaders gained followers and strength, which led to the development of feudalism.
21. The Feudal System was based on mutual feudal obligations. Describe the following groups: Lord: the lord is the landowner who gave land (called a fief) in exchange for military protection of other services.
Vassal: the vassal is the person who received the fief from the lord and owed services and loyalty to him.
Serf: the serf is the peasant and serfs made up the majority of the population. They were not lawfully allowed to leave the land they were born on. They owed labor and goods to the lords or landowners.
22. The social classes of Medieval Europe were rigid and consisted of those who fought (knights), those who prayed (clergy), and those who worked (peasants). Draw the Feudal pyramid. King-the lord
Vassals-wealthy landowners (clergy and nobles)
Peasants-serfs and poor workers
23. What is a manor? Describe the manor and life for those who lived there. The manor is the lord’s estate and is completely self-sufficient. The manor system is the social and economic system which, like feudalism, is based on obligations.
The lord gives peasants land to work, housing, and protection.
The peasants tend the land and animals and perform other tasks.
Manor life was difficult for peasants and serfs who paid high taxes and owed hard manual labor to the lords.
24. How did peasants feel about the hardships they endured? Peasants lives were hard.
They lived in one to two room cottages with dirt floors and no heating.
They slept on straw mats, ate mostly vegetables (very little meat), coarse brown bread, grain, cheese, and soup.
Serfs accepted their lot in life as part of the church’s teachings.
They believed that God had determined a person’s place in life so they had to accept it.
25. Why were knights so important? What did they get in exchange for their military service? Knights were important because they provided protection for lords and their serfs.
As mounted warriors they could knock over enemy foot soldiers as well as other riders on horseback.
In exchange for their military service they were given land grants (aka fiefs).
26. What code of ideals were knights expected to follow? What three masters must they fight bravely to defend? What characteristics should they exhibit? The code which knights were expected to follow was the code of chivalry.
Knights had three masters they must serve including God (heavenly lord), their feudal lord, and a chosen lady.
The characteristics of a good knight were loyalty, bravery, and courteousness.
They should also protect the weak and poor but they were usually cruel to the lower classes.
27. How did knights train for military service? Knights trained for military service by gaining experience in local wars.
They also wrestled and hunted for practice and took part in tournaments.
Tournaments held competitive war games so knights could work on their fighting skills.
Games included mock battles and jousting.
28. Why were castles built across Europe (what is their function)? Castles were built across Europe in order to provide protection for lords and their serfs.
Castles were built with and surrounded by massive walls and guard towers in order to protect the estate from invaders or rival lords.
29. What is the Song of Roland? What is a troubadour? The Song of Roland is one of the earliest medieval poems.
It glorified castle life and knighthood.
A troubadour is a poet-musician who composed short verses or songs about the trials and tribulations of love.
They performed for the courts and in the castles of medieval Europe. This is where 4th Period stopped!This is where 4th Period stopped!
30. What was the role of women in medieval society? How did the church view women? What rights did noblewomen have? Why did women’s power decline in this period? The role of medieval women declined. The low class women were poor and powerless.
They performed endless labor and were expected to bear children and take care of their family.
The church viewed women as inferior to men.
Noblewomen had more rights than poor women.
They could inherit an estate from a husband, send soldiers to war, and even command knights while her husband was away.
Women’s power declined during the medieval period because the church taught that women were inferior.
31. How did Pope Gelatius view church and secular power? How did the church’s crowning of Charlemagne in 800 change things? Pope Gelatius believed that the Catholic church should deal in spiritual matters only and that the secular powers (kings and nobles) should deal with worldly matters.
He believed that church and state should stay separate.
The crowning of Charlemagne in 800 AD by Pope Leo III made the Church not only a spiritual power but also a secular power
Now the Church sought to influence political matters as well as spiritual matters.
32. Describe the church’s organization.
The church had different ranks of clergy (religious officials).
Pope: serves as leader over bishops and priests.
Bishops: oversees all the priests in certain assigned areas of land. Bishops gather to settle disputes over teachings and practices and tell the priests what to teach the people.
Priests-minister to the people in villages, towns, etc.
33. How did the church serve as a unifying force in medieval Europe? What the sacraments? The Church was a unifying force in medieval Europe because the people were bound by their shared Christian beliefs.
During periods of war and uncertainty the Church provided stability and gave people a sense of security.
The Church gave people something to belong to and also served as the center of socialization.
Sacraments are the important religious ceremonies administered by the clergy and they are needed for salvation.
The sacraments are: baptism, confession, communion, confirmation, marriage, holy orders, and last rites.
34. What is Canon Law? What punishments could the church inflict on disobedient kings? Canon law is the law of the church.
If a king disobeys the canon law the Church can
excommunicate the king (banish them from the church)
place the king’s land under interdict (this means that no sacraments or religious services could be performed in that land).
This means that no one in the king’s land could go to heaven because they wouldn’t be able to receive the sacraments.
35. What is the Holy Roman Empire? Who is Otto I and what did he do? The Holy Roman Empire was the strongest empire to arise from Charlemagne’s divided empire.
Otto I (aka Otto the Great) was the ruler of Germany who gained great power and created the Holy Roman Empire.
Otto limited the power of the nobles and created an alliance with the Church.
36. What is lay investiture and what conflict arose over it? Lay investiture is a ceremony in which kings and nobles appoint church officials.
Naming church officials was important because bishops held a lot of power.
Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture so that only the Church could appoint bishops.
The German emperor Henry IV defied Gregory VII and was excommunicated.
37. What happened at Canossa? After his excommunication Henry was afraid of losing his power so he begged Pope Gregory VII to forgive him.
Though Henry VII was forgiven the issue of lay investiture wasn’t resolved.
38. What is the Concordat of Worms? Did it resolve the problems surrounding lay investiture? The Concordat of Worms (1122) was a meeting meant to solve the lay investiture issue.
They decided that only the Church could name the bishops and emperors could veto the Church’s appointment.
This didn’t really solve the problem but it was a compromise that managed to keep the peace.
39. Who is Frederick I and what did he do? Frederick I, nicknamed “Barbarossa” because of his red beard, was a German king (and thus the Holy Roman Emperor).
By attacking Italy he made enemies there and angered the Pope.
Italian nobles and the Church joined forces and defeated Frederick I in battle.
Frederick lost power and the Holy Roman Empire fell apart after his death.
40. Why did Germany remain divided during the Middle Ages? Germany remained divided during the rest of the Middle Ages because of constant warfare and conflict with Italy and the Pope.
Also, royal German authority was weakened by strong German princes who controlled more land than the king.