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2. ????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? . ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?? " ????? ??????? ??????? " ???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? .

3. ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????. ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? international contracts ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????.

4. ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???????. ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ????????.

5. ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????

6. ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????

7. ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? internal contracts: ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ????????. ???? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???.

8. ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????. ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????. ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????.

9. ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? . ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?? " ????? ??????? ??????? " ???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??????

10. ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? : ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????. ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????.. ?? ????? ???? ????? ????? . ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? .

11. (?) ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??? 1955 ? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? . ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??? 1964 ? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? 1980 ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? : (?) ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? “ I.C.C. ” ????? ????? ?????? ??? 1953 ?????? ???? ????? “ Incoterms ” ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? “F.O.B.” ?????? "C.I .F." ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??? 1964 ???? " ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? " ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? .

12. (??) ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? “ general conditions ” ???? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? . ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? “ Standard Contracts

13. ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ????? . ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????. ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? “Comecon” ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????.

14. ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? 1957 ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? “ F.I.D.I.C ” ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? “ F.I.B.T.P ” ????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????.

15. ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ????? . ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? . ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? . ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ? ????????

16. ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? . ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? . ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????

17. ????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????. ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????: ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????.       

18. ??????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? 1978? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? 1964 ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? 1983 ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????.

19. ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? .??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????.

20. ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? 21 ????? 1961 ????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????: "?? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????

21. ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? . ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? .

22. ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? . ( ? ) ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ( ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ) ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ????? . (?) ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? . (??) ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? .

23. ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????.

24. ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????

25. ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? : ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? . ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? .

26. ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? 1919 ?????? ????? (2) ? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ? ?? ?? ??? ????? ????? “ National Committees ” ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? .

27. ????? ?????????? : ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??? 1936 ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? 1953? ?????? ????? ??? 1967 ?? ??? ???? ??? 1976 ? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? 1980 ? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? . ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????

28. ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????. ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????. ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????.

29. ??????? ?????? ???????: ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ??????. ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??????????. ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ?? ?? ??? ????

30. ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????. ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????

31. ??? ???????? ????? ?????? 1955 ?1964 ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? 1977 ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? 1980 ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? 1994 ?? ?????? ??????? …???. ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????. ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????.

32. ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ????????. 1? ?????? ????????? ????????: ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ????: ? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????…

33. ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? … ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????… ? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????. ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???? …

34. ? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????… ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????… ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ???  ???????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????…

35. ? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????. ? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????… ???. 2? ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????: ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????: ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ???????. ? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????. ? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????????

36. ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????.

37. 1? ??? ?????? ????????: ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???????. ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????

38. 2? ??? ?????? ??? ???????: ?? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????????. ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? (?????? ???????)? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??????.

39. Negotiating Tips An effective contract should always be clear, specific, and focused. Sentences should be short to avoid unnecessary complexity and ambiguity. You may want to look at sample agreements prior to drafting your own. Make sure all party names are accurate.  Include their business titles if applicable. A contract should be consistent in its tone, grammar, word usage, and abbreviations. Outlining the contract can aid clarity and allow for quick reference to certain clauses. Define important terms. Anticipate litigation by including sections regarding venue

43. TYPICAL CONTRACT PROVISIONS Duties and Obligations The duties and obligations section of a contract is a detailed description of the duties and obligations of the parties and the deadlines for performance. If one party's obligation is to create a multimedia work, software, or content for a multimedia work, detailed specifications should be stated.

44. Representations and Warranties A warranty is a legal promise that certain facts are true. Typical representations or warranties in contracts concern such matters as ownership of the contract's subject matter (for example, real estate) and the right to sell or assign the subject matter. In multimedia industry contracts, warranties of ownership of intellectual property rights and no infringement of third parties' intellectual property rights are common. For contracts involving the sale of goods, certain warranties are implied under state law unless specifically disclaimed by the parties.

45. Termination Clauses These clauses ensure that either or both parties have the right to terminate the contract under certain circumstances. Generally, termination clauses describe breach of contract events that trigger the right to terminate the contract (for example, nonpayment of royalties). Termination clauses also describe the methods of giving notice of exercise of the termination right, and whether the breaching party must be given an opportunity to cure the breach before the other party can terminate the contract.

46. Remedy Clauses These clauses state what rights the no breaching party has if the other party breaches the contract. In contracts for the sale of goods, remedy clauses are usually designed to limit the seller's liability for damages.

47. Arbitration Clauses An arbitration clause states that disputes arising under the contract must be settled through arbitration rather than through court litigation. Such clauses generally include the name of the organization that will conduct the arbitration (the American Arbitration Association, for example), the city in which the arbitration will be held, and the method for selecting arbitrators. Arbitration is discussed in "Arbitration" in the U.S. Legal System summary.

48. Merger Clauses Merger clauses state that the written document contains the entire understanding of the parties. The purpose of merger clauses is to ensure that evidence outside the written document will not be admissible in court to contradict or supplement the terms of the written agreement.

49. Contract Drafting Tips here are the 10 Commandments of successful contract writing: I. Write legibly. Use a computer, block writing or even a typewriter but avoid script handwriting at all costs. II. Date the contract on the last page next to the signature blocks. The date represents the date of birth of the obligations and liabilities that flow from the contract.

50. III. Make sure the contract is signed by both parties. But as a lawyer who does a fair amount of litigation and has seen enough real contract issues to last several lifetimes,  is always astonishing to see the number of contracts that show the signature of only one party. Banks are notorious for asking clients to sign contracts leaving the space for the bank signature blank. Rarely does the customer receive a copy of the bank's contract back in the mail with the bank's signature on it. Lawyers are not much better, often presenting retainer contracts to clients with the lawyer's signature block empty.

51. IV. Do not use archaic terms like witnesseth, heretofore, henceforth or whereas, or such similar legalese. Even lawyers should not be using these types of words except in the rare situation where they might be the only fit. Use plain language - just state the plain terms of the contract. There is no need for the contract to sound like it's to be read by an 92-year old male British judge.

52. V. Leave a healthy margin around each page. Contracts are routinely faxed or scanned and essential information or even amendments that are scribbled on the edge of the page might get lost in the scan and cause all kinds of difficulties.

53. VI. Use a black ink pen if the contract has to be hand-written (in BLOCK LETTERS) and for signature. blue ink signatures often disappear when the scan is not properly calibrated leaving the impression that the contract was not completed, un-endorsed.

54. VII. Choose easy-to-use numbering. If the paragraphs need to be numbered, disregard the numbering system used by most lawyers which is an archaic combination of regular numbers, Roman numerals and both lowercase and uppercase letters (unless, of course, you're doing a Ten Commandments thing!). Break up the contract into numbered paragraphs using 1,2,3 etc. Smaller paragraphs are better than short ones: if in doubt, break it up.

55. VIII. Beware using standard clauses especially if cut from a set. If the contract is ever interpreted by a judge, they will hold you to each letter and comma of your contract. You will not be able to avoid the unintended and catastrophic consequences of a cut-and-paste standard clause by crying to the court that you did not mean it; that you just took those clauses from another contract without really reading them. Be very careful in using Self-Counsel or Internet contract style packages. IX. Be careful in your choice of words. For example, if you use the word material, the courts may have to choose between two different interpretations, depending on the context. Material can mean that something is very important; highly significant. Or it can mean that something is merely relevant. The difference can be, well, material!

56. X. Never sign a contract without reading it. Many, many court cases are fought over contracts which one of the parties say they didn't really read. They'll usually add that the contract was thrust upon them and they were pressed to sign it without a real opportunity to read it. This defence would work well for a 15 year old but for most adults, it falls on deaf judicial ears. There is no contract you are forced to sign and even if you were, it would be unenforceable.

57. RENTAL CONTRACT FOR FRATERNITY/SORORITY CHAPTER ROOMS INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY   Indiana State University, (hereinafter referred to as the “Residential Life”), hereby contracts with the following FRATERNITY/SORORITY HOUSE CORPORATION,________________________________, Name of organization (hereinafter referred to as the “Tenant”). The rental contract is for the ___________________________, Chapter Room and _______________________, ________________________. Terms The Chapter Room is to be used by the Tenant for activities related to the Fraternity/Sorority programs, meetings, and related chapter functions for the period beginning the 19 th day of August 2006 , and continuing until the _____5th_____ day of ______May 2007_______. This contract is for a one-year term, after which the organization will have the option of signing a new three-year contract. Please refer to paragraph seven (7) Termination for information concerning termination of this contract. The conditions of the original contract shall remain in full force and effect and shall be binding on the Tenant and University.

58. Rental The rental fee for the Chapter Room(s) shall be _____________ per year. The University reserves the right to change rates, with a 60-day notice, on the anniversary of the contract. Rent is payable in advance by September 1 and January 1. Notices will not be issued regarding due dates, and it is the responsibility of the Tenant to make the payments on time. Payments are payable to Indiana State University at the Office of the Controller. When an account becomes 30 days delinquent, the tenant may be requested to immediately vacate the Chapter Room.

59. RENTAL CONTRACT FOR FRATERNITY/SORORITY CHAPTER ROOMS INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY Indiana State University, (hereinafter referred to as the “Residential Life”), hereby contracts with the following FRATERNITY/SORORITY HOUSE CORPORATION,________________________________, Name of organization (hereinafter referred to as the “Tenant”). The rental contract is for the ___________________________, Chapter Room and _______________________, ________________________. Terms The Chapter Room is to be used by the Tenant for activities related to the Fraternity/Sorority programs, meetings, and related chapter functions for the period beginning the 19 th day of August 2006 , and continuing until the _____5th_____ day of ______May 2007_______. This contract is for a one-year term, after which the organization will have the option of signing a new three-year contract. Please refer to paragraph seven (7) Termination for information concerning termination of this contract. The conditions of the original contract shall remain in full force and effect and shall be binding on the Tenant and University. Rental The rental fee for the Chapter Room(s) shall be _____________ per year. The University reserves the right to change rates, with a 60-day notice, on the anniversary of the contract. Rent is payable in advance by September 1 and January 1. Notices will not be issued regarding due dates, and it is the responsibility of the Tenant to make the payments on time. Payments are payable to Indiana State University at the Office of the Controller. When an account becomes 30 days delinquent, the tenant may be requested to immediately vacate the Chapter Room.

60.  Limitations of Liability It is mutually understood and agreed between the parties hereto that in the event the University shall be unable for any reason to deliver the possession of the premises hereby leased at the time as herein agreed, the University shall not be liable for damages caused by such failure to deliver possession nor shall this contract be voidable for that reason, but in such event the Tenant shall not be liable for rent until complete possession shall have been delivered to the Tenant. The Tenant covenants and agrees to indemnify and save the University harmless from any and all loss, including attorney’s fees, by reason of any accident, injury, loss, or damage resulting to persons or property while on the

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