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Classification. Criteria for classification as reported in an ancient Chinese encyclopedia (Lakoff 1987):. “…it is written that animals are divided into:. those that belong to the Emperor. embalmed ones. those that are trained. suckling pigs. mermaids. fabulous ones. stray dogs.

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Classification

Criteria for classification as reported in an ancient Chinese encyclopedia (Lakoff 1987):

“…it is written that animals are divided into:

those that belong to the Emperor

embalmed ones

those that are trained

suckling pigs

mermaids

fabulous ones

stray dogs

those that tremble as if they were mad

those that have just broken a flower vase


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Systematics- studies diversity of life

study and classification of organisms with the goal of reconstructing their evolutionary history

Taxonomy- study of classification

science of identifying, naming and classifying organisms into groups


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Linnaeus- 1700’s, Swedish physician/botanist

Developed binomial naming system


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Example of Coral Classification

The Mushroom Coral

Fungia scutaria

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Cnidaria

Class Anthozoa

Order Scleractinia

Family Fungiidae

Genus Fungia

Species scutaria


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Biological Nomenclature

A species is both defined by its genus name and specific name.

Ex. Fungia scutaria

Fungia- genus name

scutaria- species name


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Biological Species

Organisms that are genetically similar, and have ability to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring


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Offspring is sterile

mule

donkey

horse


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What are some

of the ways we

can classify animals?


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Mode of Reproduction: binary fission, gametes

Cell structure: multi or single celled, nucleus/no nucleus, cell wall/no cell wall, chlorophyll present/not present,

Internal/External skeleton: back bone, bone/cartilage

Energy: autotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotrophic

Respiratory system: gills, lungs, gas exchange across skin/epithelium

Circulatory system: closed/open, # of chambers in a heart


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Five kingdom system:

Monera

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Six kingdom system:

Eu-

bacteria

Archae-bacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Three domain system:

Eu-

bacteria

Archae-bacteria

E U K A R Y A

Eight kingdom system:

Eu-

bacteria

Archae-bacteria

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Archezoa

Protista

Chromista

Classification


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Six kingdom system:

Monera

Eu-

bacteria

Archae-bacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia


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Kingdoms Archaebacteria & Eubacteria (Monera)

  • Prokaryotic, single-celled organisms.

  • Heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, and chemoautotrophic species.

    - Purple sulfur bacteria- chemoautotrophic

    - Blue-green algae (cyano)- photoautotrophic

    - E. coli- heterotrophic

  • Some with cell walls, but cell walls composed of peptidoglycan, not cellulose (as in higher plants).


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Kingdom Protista

  • Eukaryotic, generally single-celled, organisms.

  • If multicellular, then cells not well-oganized into tissues and organs (more colonies of cells).

  • A very heterogeneous group include both heterotrophic and photoautotrophic forms.

  • Includes protozoa (e.g., Paramecium, Amoeba, & Euglena, etc.) and algae (e.g., diatoms, dinoflagellates, Volvox, & most seaweed groups).


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Kingdom Protista

Diatoms

  • Diatoms

  • Dinoflagellates

  • Green algae

  • Brown Algae

  • Red algae

Dinoflagellates


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Chlorophyta: Green Algae

Halimeda opuntia

Codium edule

Caulerpa sertularioides

Dictyosphaeria cavernosa

Caulerpa racemosa


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Phaeophyta: Brown Algae

Padina japonica

Turbinaria ornata

Hydroclathrus clathratus

Sargassum echinocarpum

Sargassum polyphyllum


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Rhodophyta: Red Algae

Hypnea chordacea

Ahnfeltia concinna

Acanthophora spicifera

Galaxaura fastigiata

Asparagopsis taxiformis


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Kingdom Plantae

  • Eukaryotic, multicellular organisms with cells organized into distinct tissues.

  • Photoautotrophic nutrition.

  • Most adapted for a terrestrial existence and possessing vascular tissues.

  • Cells with chloroplasts and cellulose cell walls.

  • Includes mosses, ferns, pine trees, cycads, ginkgos, and flowering plants.


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Kingdom Plantae

Sea grasses

Halophilia hawaiiana- only form of seagrass in Hawaii



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  • Eukaryotic, generally multicellular, organisms (a few species, e.g., yeast are unicellular).

  • Heterotrophic, saprophytic (absorptive) nutrition.

  • Most with cell walls (usually composed of chitin) and complex life histories.

  • Includes molds, yeasts, rusts, and mushrooms.


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Kingdom Animalia

  • Eukaryotic, multicellular organisms with cells organized into distinct tissues.

  • Heterotrophic nutrition

  • Most exhibit significant capacity for locomotion.

  • Cells not surrounded by cell walls.

  • Includes sponges, sea anemones, snails, insects, sea stars, fish, reptiles, birds, and human beings.


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Phylogentic Relationships of Animals

Platyhelminthes

Porifera

Mollusca

Chordata

Arthropoda

Annelida

Cnideria

Nematoda

Echinodermata

pseudocoelom

segmentation

acoelom

Protostome: schizocoelem

Deuterostomes:

eucoelom

radial symmetry

bilateral symmetry

no true tissues

true tissue

Ancestral Protist


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Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Porifera

Class Hexactinellida

Class Desmospongia

Class Calcaria

Purple and yellow

tube sponge

Boring sponge


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Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Cnideria

Class Hydrozoa- hydroids

Class Scyphozoa- jellies

Class Cubozoa- box jellies

Class Anthozoa- corals and anemones


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Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Ctenophora- comb jellies

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Platyhelmithes- flat worms


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Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Mollusca

Class Gastropoda

Subclass Opisthobranchia

Spanish Dancer (nudibranch)

& egg mass


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Class Gastropoda

Subclass Prosobranchia

Cone shell

Opihi

Cowery

periwinkle

Triton’s trumpet




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Class Cephalopoda

Day octopus


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Phylum Echinodermata: Class Echinoidea: Sea Urchins

Slate pencil urchin

Collector urchin

Echinometra mathaei

Echinothrix calamaris

Colobocentrotus atratus


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Class Holothuroidea: Sea Cucumbers

Polyplectana kerfersteninii

Holothuria atra


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Class Asteroidea: Sea Stars

Linckia sp.

Acanthaster planci




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Phylum Arthropoda

Yellow spotted guard crab

Hawaiian cleaner shrimp

Spiny lobster

Anemone carrying hermit crab

Banded coral shrimp


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Phylum Chordata

Subphylum Vertebrata

Class Chondrichthyes


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Class Osteichthyes

680 species of fish in the islands' waters.

About 30% of these fish are endemic to the area .


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Domino damsel

Trigger (Humu)

White mouthed

morey

Porcupine

Dwarf moray

Achilles tang

trumpetfish


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Class Amphibia

Rana cancrivora


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Class Reptilia

Saltwater crocodile

Marine iguana

Marine turtle

Sea snake



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Class Mammalia

Whales & Dolphins

Polar bear

Sea otter

Seals & sealions

manatee

Dugong


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